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Test Bank Biology Science for Life with Physiology, 4th Edition Colleen Belk

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Test Bank Biology Science for Life with Physiology, 4th Edition Colleen Belk

Test Bank Biology Science for Life with Physiology, 4th Edition Colleen Belk

Biology: Science for Life with Physiology, 4e (Belk)

Chapter 1   Can Science Cure the Common Cold? Introduction to the Scientific Method

 

1) The scientific method is used to

A) answer specific questions about the natural world.

B) determine absolute truth.

C) distinguish good from evil.

D) establish moral codes.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

2) A scientific hypothesis has which of the following features?

A) It is able to be proven true.

B) It is falsifiable.

C) It is a theory about something.

D) It is not based on observations.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

3) Which of the following is an appropriate scientific hypothesis?

A) Bad people catch more colds than good people.

B) Cold viruses should be allowed to reproduce just like anything else.

C) It is unethical to go to school when you have a cold.

D) People catch colds because of exposure to cold temperature.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied

 

4) A scientific theory is

A) an explanation supported by a very large amount of experimental evidence.

B) an explanation that cannot be modified in light of new experimental evidence.

C) little more than an educated guess.

D) any testable explanation for a question or problem.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual


5) Deductive reasoning is used to make ________ based on a hypothesis.

A) correlations

B) data

C) predictions

D) statistical tests

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

6) What hypothesis was tested by Warren and Marshall during their research involving Helicobacter pylori bacteria and stomach ulcers?

A) Eating spicy food increases populations of H. pylori in the stomachs of people susceptible to ulcers.

B) The cause of many stomach ulcers is the bacterium H. pylori, not spicy food.

C) Stomach acid production is decreased by H. pylori bacteria in the stomachs of people who have ulcers.

D) Acute stomach pain is often caused by H. pylori bacteria, not ulcers.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Conceptual

 

7) The germ theory was developed by microbiologists, including

A) Warren and Marshall.

B) Pasteur and Koch.

C) Watson and Crick.

D) Jacob and Monad.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

8) If an inductively reasoned hypothesis makes sense, based on all available and historical observations, then

A) the hypothesis must be true.

B) the hypothesis cannot possibly be true.

C) the hypothesis might be false.

D) experimentation is not necessary.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Conceptual


9) Why are hypotheses never accepted by scientists?

A) A hypothesis cannot ever be true or false because it is an opinion.

B) Experimentation cannot support a hypothesis because it only tests predictions.

C) Hypotheses change every time a new experiment is conducted.

D) Alternative hypotheses might provide a better answer to the research question.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Conceptual

 

10) When a hypothesis is extensively tested and supported by a large number of studies conducted by many different scientists, then

A) it is considered a scientific theory.

B) the hypothesis is referred to as a prediction.

C) further experimentation will not occur unless an alternative hypothesis is proposed.

D) it is a fact that cannot be refuted.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

11) Consider this hypothesis: "Drinking Echinacea tea reduces the duration and severity of colds." Which of the following statements is the best prediction based on this hypothesis?

A) If people with a cold drink Echinacea tea, then they will feel better sooner than people who don't consume the tea.

B) If people with a cold drink Echinacea tea, then an ingredient in the tea will bind to cold viruses and destroy them.

C) If people with a cold drink Echinacea tea, then the tea will reduce their stress, making them feel better.

D) If a person doesn't drink Echinacea tea, then he or she will catch a cold very easily.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied

 

12) Which of the following is a testable hypothesis?

A) Taking zinc lozenges at the first sign of cold symptoms is wise.

B) Avoiding contact with other people reduces the chance of catching a cold.

C) Being a good driver makes you less likely to catch a cold.

D) Sleeping eight hours a night makes you feel better when you have a cold.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied


13) Which of the following hypotheses is testable using scientific methods?

A) Bees can see ultraviolet light that humans can't.

B) The dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was a scavenger, not a predator.

C) Peacocks like to display their large tail feathers.

D) People with type O blood are natural meat eaters.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied

 

14) Which of the following statements is a testable scientific hypothesis?

A) Antioxidants from food are better than antioxidants from a vitamin pill.

B) Eating fish reduces the chance of having a stroke.

C) Embryonic stem cell research will allow scientists to find a cure for diabetes.

D) Smoking makes people less attractive.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied

 

15) Which of the following statements is the best prediction based on the hypothesis that bird species have decreased in number in a particular wetland because of construction traffic?

A) If a wetland area is disturbed by construction vehicles, then the number of bird species will decrease.

B) If construction vehicles are in a wetland, then the birds will become too frightened to reproduce.

C) If bird numbers decrease in a wetland, then construction vehicles must have affected the environment.

D) If construction vehicles enter a wetland, then new predators will enter the area and reduce the size of bird populations.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied

16) Certain researchers have published peer-reviewed reports that the use of zinc lozenges reduces the length and severity of cold symptoms. What is one reason why some scientists are still skeptical about the merits of using zinc lozenges during a cold?

A) Because most people get zinc in their diet anyway, there's no reason to believe that zinc lozenges could affect a cold.

B) Previous ideas about vitamin C usage have been discredited, so there's no reason to believe new ideas about zinc lozenges.

C) There is no way of knowing if the original work was properly controlled or statistically significant.

D) There may be other reasons why the people taking zinc lozenges recovered faster, such as stress levels or differences in their immune systems.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied

 


17) ________ reasoning takes the form of "if/then" statements.

Answer: Deductive

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

18) ________ reasoning is used to make a hypothesis based on previously established observations.

Answer: Inductive

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

19) A(n) ________ (two words) is an explanation of a set of related observations based on well-supported hypotheses from a number of different, independent lines of research.

Answer: scientific theory

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

 

20) ________ reasoning is used to make predictions based on a hypothesis.

Answer: Deductive

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Factual

21) A researcher has hypothesized that the chemical tributyltin (an additive in boat paint) seeps out of the paint into the water and causes reproductive defects in developing marine snails. Which of the following would be a good control in an experiment that tests the effects of tributyltin on developing snails?

A) Developing snails are kept in a tank of water and exposed to below-expected levels of tributyltin.

B) Developing snails are kept in a tank of water and exposed to boat paint that does not contain tributyltin.

C) Developing snails are kept in a dry tank to avoid exposure to contaminated water.

D) Developing snails are kept in a tank of water that has never been exposed to boat paint.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.1

Skill: Applied

 


22) Mehran has heard from some of his teammates that drinking a high protein supplement after football training will improve his muscle mass. He decides to test this hypothesis by comparing the muscle mass of teammates who drink the high protein drink with a control group who drink only water. Which of the following would be the best control for his experiment?

A) randomly selected teammates who are given only small amounts of a protein drink

B) randomly selected teammates in training who are given a placebo instead of a protein drink

C) volunteers from the general campus population who are not given any protein drink

D) volunteers from the football team who agree to take a placebo instead of a protein drink

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

23) Which of the following situations has the greatest potential for observer bias in an experimental process?

A) Dr. Jones is evaluating cancer patients for their responses to a new therapeutic drug. She knows which patients are receiving the placebo and which are receiving the drug.

B) Mr. Bromley is conducting a survey of weight loss for his professor. He asks each student in the study the same questions.

C) Ms. Bradley is an outside consultant who is conducting a health and wellness survey for a pharmaceutical company. She does not know the name of the company nor does she know the name of the drug being tested during the survey.

D) Dr. Postgate is analyzing biopsy samples from rats that have been given either a placebo or an experimental drug believed to reduce inflammation. Each sample is identified by a code number so that Dr. Postgate cannot tell which treatment the rats received.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

 

24) A ________ is a factor in an experiment that can be manipulated.

A) bias

B) control

C) placebo

D) variable

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

25) Consider an experiment in which subjects are given a pill to test its effectiveness on reducing the duration of a cold. Which of the following is the best way to treat the control group?

A) Do nothing with the control group.

B) Give the control group two pills instead of one.

C) Give the control group a pill that does not affect the duration of colds.

D) Let the control group choose whether or not to take any pills.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

26) The most effective control subjects in a test of an experimental treatment are

A) a different age or gender than the experimental subjects.

B) given different doses of the experimental treatment.

C) kept well informed of what treatment they are getting.

D) treated the same as experimental subjects but not given the experimental treatment.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

 

27) The purpose of double-blind experiments is to

A) ensure that the hypothesis is scientifically testable.

B) see if the experimental group will respond differently than the control group.

C) help the subjects in an experiment understand the treatment they are receiving.

D) minimize the effects of human bias on the results.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

28) Model organisms are used to test hypotheses

A) that are likely to apply only to the model organism.

B) that are potentially too dangerous to perform on human subjects.

C) only after human subjects have been tested.

D) that have results that are always applicable to humans.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

29) It has been observed that people with relatively high stress levels get a relatively high number of colds. This is an example of a(n)

A) correlation.

B) experiment.

C) variable.

D) hypothesis.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

30) There is a strong correlation between stress and susceptibility to colds. This means that

A) stress must directly cause susceptibility to colds.

B) a high susceptibility to colds must directly cause stress.

C) people with high stress must come into contact with more cold viruses.

D) stress might or might not affect susceptibility to colds.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

 

31) An experiment is called double-blind when

A) the hypothesis being tested is not based on previous observations.

B) it has already been performed by different researchers.

C) neither the subjects nor the researchers know who is in the experimental and control groups.

D) the results of the experiment are only revealed to certain researchers.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

32) Ideally, an experiment studying the effect of a cold medicine should have

A) no control group.

B) double-blind procedures.

C) a small sample size.

D) subjects of only one gender.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

33) Correlations are less convincing than controlled experimental results because correlations

A) are subject to greater bias than experimental results.

B) cannot be observed outside the laboratory.

C) cannot be statistically significant.

D) do not eliminate as many alternative hypotheses as experimental results.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

34) Which of the following is a true statement about experimentation?

A) Variables in an experiment cannot be manipulated by the researcher.

B) Some hypotheses cannot be tested by experimentation.

C) Experimentation should test at least two or more hypotheses at the same time.

D) True randomization of subjects is impossible during experimentation.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Conceptual

 


35) Suppose that a botanist is interested in the effect of light on plants. In an experiment she conducts, 50 individuals of a single species of flowering plant are grown for 60 days under different lengths of artificial daylight. The plant species has flowers that can be either white or pink, depending on the genetics of the parent plants. The amount of water and fertilizer provided to each plant is constant. At the end of the experiment, the size of each leaf of every plant is measured. The dependent variable in this experiment is the

A) duration of artificial daylight.

B) flower's color.

C) leaf's size.

D) duration of the experiment.

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

 

36) Why is the random assignment of individuals to experimental and control groups important for an experiment?

A) It ensures that bias has been completely eliminated from the experiment.

B) It ensures that the results of the experiment will be statistically significant.

C) It ensures that the sampling error will have no effect on the results of the experiment.

D) It ensures that each group will better represent the population as a whole.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

37) Bias in an experiment can occur when

A) a subject does not know who is in the control or experimental groups.

B) a technician knows which samples are from the control group.

C) a subject finds out the results of the experiment after it is finished.

D) a researcher randomly assigns subjects to the control or experimental group.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

38) Which of the following would be a control in an experiment testing the prediction that a certain drug prevents cataracts in females over the age of 65?

A) male subjects

B) female subjects younger than 65

C) alternative drugs that are suspected to prevent cataracts

D) female subjects over 65 that are given placebos

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Conceptual

 


39) Which experimental scenario would likely produce the most trustworthy results?

A) a double-blind study involving a new heart disease treatment

B) an unbiased investigation that shows a strong correlation between two variables

C) a blind experiment testing the effects of caffeine on blood pressure

D) an experiment that is slightly biased but does not use a model organism

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

 

40) When graphing data, scientists plot the ________ on the x-axis.

A) independent variable

B) dependent variable

C) control

D) sampling error

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

41) Imagine that the average annual temperature among geographic regions is plotted on the x-axis of a graph, and the spiciness of local food (ranked on a relative "spiciness" scale) in that region is plotted on the y-axis. If the data conform to a very tight relationship, for example, if the hotness of local food increases as the average annual temperature increases, then what can be concluded?

A) The spiciness of local food does not correlate with the average annual temperature in a region.

B) Food is spicy in warm climates because the environmental conditions (warm temperatures) make local foods more spicy.

C) The relationship between the two variables is not correlation, but it is actually an example of causation.

D) Spiciness of food and annual average temperature are correlated, but the relationship is not the result of causation.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

 

42) Which of the following is an example of a cohort study?

A) Compare lifetime exposure to coal plant emissions between individuals with lung cancer and individuals without lung cancer in the general population.

B) Measure lifetime exposure to coal plant emissions and the incidence of lung cancer in a group of individuals living in a small town.

C) Question all people in an area about their exposure to coal plant emissions and whether they have any lung diseases.

D) Examine the incidence of lung disease in all females over the age of 50 in a city that is close to a coal plant.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Conceptual

 

43) Which of the following is a disadvantage of a correlational experiment?

A) subjects may not know exposure levels

B) it is expensive and time consuming

C) it is not feasible for rare diseases or environmental factors of interest

D) it is only feasible for hypotheses for which an experimental treatment can be applied

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

44) The incidence of cancer in people living within 100 yards of overhead power lines is recorded. This would be best described as an example of a(n)

A) ecological study.

B) cross-sectional survey.

C) cohort study.

D) correlational experiment.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Conceptual

 

45) The study of specific human populations for unusually high levels of a disease is

A) a case-control study.

B) a cross-sectional survey.

C) an ecological study.

D) a correlational experiment.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

46) Double-blind experiments are used so that the results will be more

A) biased.

B) controlled.

C) objective.

D) statistically significant.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 


47) Scientists are often hesitant to believe the results of a single experiment testing a particular treatment, even when the results are peer reviewed and statistically significant. This is because

A) the experimental and control groups may be too alike.

B) the results may not be true for humans if the experiment used a model organism.

C) a single experiment may have eliminated most of the alternative hypotheses.

D) the experiment was likely to have had many biases that affected the results.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Applied

48) A(n) ________ subject is treated as closely as possible to an experimental subject except that he or she does not get the experimental treatment.

Answer: control

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

49) A(n) ________ is an intentionally ineffective treatment given to members of a control group in an experiment.

Answer: placebo

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

50) Scientific information called ________, which are collected from well-designed experiments, should allow researchers to either reject or support a hypothesis.

Answer: data

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.2

Skill: Factual

 

51) A(n) ________ (two words) result is one that is very unlikely to be due to chance differences between the experimental and control groups.

Answer: statistically significant

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual

 

52) The specialized branch of mathematics that is used to compare data is called

A) epidemiology.

B) computational mathematics.

C) cross-sectional mathematics.

D) statistics.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual


53) When an experiment has a large sample size, and there is a large difference between the results in the experimental and control groups, it is ________ that the experimental results are statistically significant.

A) very unlikely

B) unlikely

C) somewhat likely

D) very likely

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual

 

54) Sampling error refers to the

A) difficulty in accurately measuring results that are incalculable.

B) differences between a group of experimental subjects and the population as a whole.

C) experimental results that do not support the hypothesis being tested.

D) intentional biases on the part of researchers.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual

 

55) Sampling error can be reduced by

A) increasing the sample size.

B) performing statistical tests on experimental data.

C) performing double-blind experiments.

D) closely monitoring changes in the experimental and control groups.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Applied

 

56) In statistics, a sample is a

A) mean of a population.

B) small subgroup of a population.

C) correlation between the experimental factor on the subject's response.

D) range of values that has a high probability of containing the true mean.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual


57) A statistically significant result is one that

A) is unlikely due to chance.

B) has real-world importance but is not necessarily based on mathematical probability.

C) is likely due to chance differences between groups.

D) the media can report as valid but scientists must consider as unsupported by research.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual

 

58) If the two means differ greatly between control and treatment groups, the difference is very likely to be statistically significant only if

A) the hypothesis is false.

B) the sample size is large.

C) the experimental result is practically significant.

D) the experimental result is not practically significant.

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Conceptual

 

59) Experimental results with very high statistical significance mean that

A) the hypothesis being tested is correct.

B) the experiment had no bias.

C) the experiment had proper controls.

D) a true difference between treatment and control groups likely exists.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Applied

 

60) In an ideal experiment, there is a

A) high sampling error.

B) small treatment effect.

C) low standard error.

D) large confidence interval.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Conceptual

61) If the reported confidence interval for a population mean is 95%, then there is a

A) 5% chance that the results are statistically significant.

B) 95% chance that the results are statistically significant.

C) 5% probability that the true mean is in the reported range.

D) 95% probability that the true mean is in the reported range.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual

 

62) Which of the following is a standard probability that is accepted by most researchers as statistical significance?

A) 10%

B) 5%

C) 0.05%

D) 0.01%

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Conceptual

 

63) Statistical analysis of experimental results determines

A) the amount of bias in the experimental design.

B) the likelihood that the results are due to the experimental treatment.

C) whether the experiment proves that the hypothesis being tested is correct.

D) whether the proper controls were used in the experiment.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual

 

64) An experimental result is called statistically significant when

A) the experiment is double blind.

B) experimental and control subjects are randomly assigned.

C) the result is unlikely to be due to chance alone.

D) the result supports the hypothesis being tested.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Factual

65) Results from one test of a new drug are found to be statistically significant; therefore, the hypothesis

A) is accepted as correct.

B) is called a theory.

C) is rejected.

D) should be tested again.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.3

Skill: Applied

 


66) Which of the following statements is an example of anecdotal evidence?

A) Dr. Chowdury's research on bowel disorders, which was published in a scientific journal.

B) Dr. Jackson's statement in his infomercial that "I believe my personal cure for bowel disorders is more effective than any drug I've ever prescribed in 20 years of practicing medicine."

C) Information about side effects on the label of a bowel disorder drug.

D) An article on bowel disorders on a medical website.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Applied

 

67) What does it mean to say that experimental results are peer reviewed?

A) The results are analyzed by other scientists before they are published.

B) The results are obtained from double-blind experiments.

C) The results are obtained from experiments with a large sample size.

D) The results are obtained from experiments with a low sampling error.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Factual

 

68) A news report on CNN that describes recently published research on a new treatment for colds is an example of a(n)

A) anecdote.

B) primary source.

C) secondary source.

D) peer-reviewed report.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Factual

69) The most trustworthy source of scientific information is

A) anecdotal evidence.

B) paid advertisements.

C) peer-reviewed research publications.

D) science reports in newspapers and on TV.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Factual

 


70) Which of the following is a sign that scientific information on a website may be unreliable?

A) The site avoids anecdotal evidence.

B) The site backs up its claims with references to primary sources.

C) A reputable medical establishment maintains the site.

D) The site is set up to allow you to buy the product being described.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Factual

 

71) A personal opinion on the effectiveness of a dietary supplement in preventing colds is an example of ________ evidence.

Answer: anecdotal

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Factual

 

72) A news report is an example of a(n) ________ source of scientific information.

A) primary

B) secondary

C) tertiary

D) anecdotal

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Factual

 

73) In science, an individual's personal experience or endorsement is considered to be

A) anecdotal evidence.

B) circumstantial evidence.

C) a primary source.

D) a peer review.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Topic: 1.4

Skill: Factual

74) According to scientific evidence, what is the best prevention method known for reducing the chance of contracting a common cold?

A) drinking Echinacea tea at least once a day

B) eating 500 mg of vitamin C a day

C) using throat lozenges that contain zinc

D) washing your hands frequently and effectively

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Topic: 1.5

Skill: Factual