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Test Bank Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 2nd edition Saladin

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Test Bank Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 2nd edition Saladin

Test Bank Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 2nd edition Saladin

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 2e (Saladin)

Chapter 1   The Study of Anatomy and Physiology


1) Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation.


2) We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).


3) Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens.


4) Feeling structures with your fingertips is called ________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ________

A) palpation; auscultation.

B) auscultation; percussion.

C) percussion; auscultation.

D) palpation; percussion.

E) percussion; palpation.


5) Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus?

A) Auscultation

B) PET scan


D) Sonography

E) Radiography


6) The study of the structure and function of the hormone-producing glands is called

A) endocrinology.

B) pathology.

C) exploratory physiology.

D) comparative physiology.

E) glandology.


7) The fact that most of us have five lumbar vertebrae, but some people have six and some have four is an example of ________ variation among organisms.

A) cellular

B) holistic

C) physiological

D) anatomical

E) reductionist


8) Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things.


9) ________ are the simplest body structures considered alive.

A) Organ systems

B) Organs

C) Cells

D) Organelles

E) Molecules


10) Metabolism is the sum of

A) inhalation and exhalation.

B) growth and differentiation.

C) anabolism and catabolism.

D) positive and negative feedback.

E) responsiveness and movement.


11) The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of ________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of ________

A) development; differentiation.

B) growth; development.

C) growth; differentiation.

D) differentiation; growth.

E) differentiation; development.


12) Organs are made of tissues.


13) A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle).


14) An ________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ________ are microscopic structures in a cell.

A) organ system; organs

B) organ system; organelles

C) organ; organelles

D) organ; molecules

E) organelle; molecules


15) Which of the following lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest?

A) organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system

B) organ system, organ, cell, tissue, organelle

C) organ system, organelle, tissue, cell, organ

D) organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle

E) organ, organ system, tissue, cell, organelle


16) Which of the following lists examples of body structures from the simplest to the most complex?

A) mitochondrion, connective tissue, protein, stomach, adipocyte (fat cell)

B) protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach

C) mitochondrion, connective tissue, stomach, protein, adipocyte (fat cell)

D) protein, adipocyte (fat cell), stomach, connective tissue, mitochondrion

E) protein, stomach, connective tissue, adipocyte (fat cell), mitochondrion


17) A(n) ________ is a group of similar cells and their intercellular materials in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function.

A) macromolecule

B) organ system

C) organelle

D) organism

E) tissue


18) All of the following are human organ systems except

A) skeletal.

B) endocrine.

C) epidermal.

D) reproductive.

E) lymphatic.


19) All of the following are organs except:

A) teeth.

B) skin.

C) nails.

D) liver.

E) digestive system.


20) Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tend to produce rapid change in the body.


21) When you exercise you generate excess heat and your body temperature rises. Blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and you lose heat. This is an example of

A) negative feedback.

B) positive feedback.

C) dynamic equilibrium.

D) integration control.

E) set point adjustment.


22) Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates release of the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates body cells to uptake glucose from the bloodstream. This reduces blood glucose concentration. This is an example of

A) negative feedback.

B) positive feedback.

C) dynamic equilibrium.

D) integration control.

E) set point adjustment.


23) Negative feedback loops are

A) homeostatic.

B) not homeostatic.

C) associated with "vicious circles."

D) self-amplifying cycles.

E) harmful.


24) Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body's physiological variables gets out of balance.


25) When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example of

A) negative feedback.

B) positive feedback.

C) dynamic equilibrium.

D) integration control.

E) set point adjustment.


26) Which of the following is most likely to cause disease?

A) Positive feedback

B) Negative feedback

C) Homeostasis

D) Equilibrium

E) Irritability


27) The prefix hypo- means ________, whereas hyper- means ________.

A) front; back

B) right; left

C) inside; outside

D) clear; dark

E) below; above


28) Hypercalcemia means

A) elevated calcium levels in blood.

B) lowered calcium levels in bone.

C) elevated sodium levels in blood.

D) elevated calcium levels in bone.

E) lowered calcium levels in the blood.


29) The plural of axilla (armpit) is ________ whereas the plural of appendix is ________.

A) axillae; appendices

B) axillides; appendages

C) axillies; appendi

D) axilli; appendices


30) The plural of villus (hair) is ________ whereas the plural of diagnosis is ________

A) villuses; diagnosises.

B) villi; diagnoses.

C) villus; diagnosis.

D) villi; diagnosis.

E) villuses; diagnosis.


31) The frontal plane passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left portions.


32) The cut of a guillotine is an example of a section done in the midsagittal plane.


33) The appendicular region consists of the head, neck, and trunk.


34) The appendix is typically found in the right lower quadrant.


35) The liver is proximal to the diaphragm.


36) When the abdomen is divided into nine regions, the superior horizontal line is called the midclavicular line.


37) The most lateral and superior region of the abdomen is called the hypochondriac region.


38) In anatomical position, the forearm is supinated.


39) The heart occupies a space called the pleural cavity.


40) The cranial cavity contains the brain.


41) The ________ cavity is inferior to the ________ cavity.

A) cranial; thoracic

B) thoracic; abdominopelvic

C) pericardial; pleural

D) thoracic; peritoneal

E) thoracic; cranial


42) The most superior segment of the upper limb is called

A) the digits.

B) the manual region.

C) the carpal region.

D) the antebrachial region.

E) the brachial region.


43) The ________ region of the left lower limb is proximal to the ________ region of the same limb.

A) carpal; manual

B) femoral; crural

C) antebrachial; brachial

D) tarsal; crural

E) brachial; femoral


44) The ________ wraps around the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

A) pleura

B) pericardium

C) meninges

D) visceral peritoneum

E) parietal peritoneum


45) The ________ is an organ directly associated with both the ________ systems.

A) stomach; digestive and reproductive

B) pancreas; digestive and endocrine

C) small intestine; digestive and integumentary

D) testis; male reproductive and urinary

E) ovary; female reproductive and lymphatic


46) Which one of the following is not in the correct anatomical position?

A) Arms at sides

B) Standing erect

C) Face and eyes facing forward

D) Feet flat on the floor

E) Palms facing posteriorly


47) The plane that passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into anterior and posterior portions is called the ________ plane.

A) sagittal

B) frontal

C) median

D) transverse

E) oblique


48) The interscapular region is ________ to the scapular region.

A) anterior

B) posterior

C) medial

D) lateral

E) superior


49) The breastbone is ________ to the vertebral column.

A) anterior

B) posterior

C) superior

D) inferior

E) medial


50) The most ________ part of the small intestine is the part closest the stomach.

A) dorsal

B) ventral

C) proximal

D) distal

E) medial


51) The right shoulder is ________ and ________ to the umbilical region.

A) superior; lateral

B) superior; medial

C) inferior; lateral

D) inferior; medial

E) posterior; lateral


52) The trachea is ________ to the esophagus.

A) superior

B) dorsal

C) anterior

D) posterior

E) inferior


53) In the cat, the head is ________ to the tail, whereas in the human the head is ________ to the gluteal region (buttock).

A) superior; superior

B) anterior; superior

C) posterior; dorsal

D) ventral; distal

E) anterior; posterior


54) The visceral pericardium is ________ to the parietal pericardium.

A) lateral

B) medial

C) superficial

D) deep

E) anterior


55) The lumbar vertebrae are ________ to the thoracic vertebrae.

A) anterior

B) superior

C) cephalic

D) posterior

E) inferior


56) The stomach is located mainly in which quadrant of the abdomen?

A) Right upper quadrant (RUQ)

B) Right lower quadrant (RLQ)

C) Left upper quadrant (LUQ)

D) Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

E) Left middle quadrant (LMQ)


57) The superolateral regions of the abdomen are called the ________ regions.

A) epigastric

B) inguinal

C) hypochondriac

D) hypogastric

E) lateral abdominal


58) The urinary bladder is located in the ________ region.

A) epigastric

B) umbilical

C) hypogastric

D) inguinal

E) hypochondriac


59) In the appendicular region, the wrist is called the ________ region, and the ankle is called the ________ region.

A) manual; pedal

B) brachial; crural

C) crural; antebrachial

D) carpal; tarsal

E) metacarpal; metatarsal


60) The vertebral column encloses the

A) thoracic cavity.

B) abdominal cavity.

C) pelvic cavity.

D) vertebral canal.

E) cranial cavity.


61) The brain and the spinal cord are protected by

A) a parietal layer.

B) a visceral layer.

C) mucous membranes.

D) serous membranes.

E) the meninges.


62) The thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity are lined by

A) an endothelium.

B) the mediastinum.

C) meninges.

D) serous membranes.

E) mucous membranes.


63) The thoracic cavity is divided into right, left, and medial portions by a region called the

A) mediastinum.

B) diaphragm.

C) serous membrane.

D) meninges.

E) peritoneum.


64) The ________ cavity contains the lungs, which are enfolded in the ________.

A) thoracic; pleurae

B) thoracic; pericardium

C) thoracic; peritoneum

D) abdominopelvic; peritoneum

E) abdominopelvic; pleurae


65) Understanding the respiratory function of mice, helps us understand the respiratory function of humans. This is an example of ________.

A) neurophysiology

B) comparative physiology

C) endocrinology

D) physiopathology

E) histology


66) The heart is in the ________ cavity and is covered by the ________.

A) thoracic; pleura

B) thoracic; pericardium

C) pericardial; pleura

D) pericardial; peritoneum

E) cranial; meninges


67) The ability to maintain internal stability is called

A) homeostasis.

B) thermodynamics.

C) reproduction.

D) development.

E) evolution.


68) The abdominopelvic cavity contains a moist serous membrane called the

A) peritoneum.

B) pleura.

C) pericardium.

D) mediastinum.

E) meninges.


69) Which is the only plane that allows one to see both kidneys and the umbilicus at the same time?

A) Frontal

B) Midsagittal

C) Transverse

D) Parasagittal

E) Coronal


70) Cervical dysplasia is a condition in which the cells of the cervix develop abnormally. The doctor who diagnoses this is a(n)

A) histopathologist.

B) endocrinologist.

C) radiologist.

D) podiatrist.

E) orthopedist.


71) Historically, the most accurate study of the body began with

A) x-rays.

B) dissection.

C) palpation.


E) the stethoscope.


72) This system provides protection, water retention, thermoregulation, and vitamin D production.

A) Lymphatic system

B) Muscular system

C) Skeletal system

D) Integumentary system

E) Excretory system


73) The thymus, spleen, and tonsils are principal organs of this system.

A) Endocrine system

B) Respiratory system

C) Lymphatic system

D) Circulatory system

E) Muscular system


74) These two systems control and coordinate the 50 trillion cells in a human.

A) Muscular and nervous systems

B) Circulatory and lymphatic systems

C) Endocrine and nervous systems

D) Circulatory and endocrine systems

E) Muscular and skeletal systems


75) A human body specimen used for dissection is called a ________.

A) cadaver

B) comparative specimen

C) corpse

D) dry specimen

E) model


76) When examining a patient, a nurse notices that the right kidney is not in its usual location. This most likely means

A) the patient definitely has a kidney pathology.

B) the patient may simply have an anatomical variation.

C) the patient is faking an injury.

D) the patient's kidney was stolen by black market organ harvesters.

E) the nurse is not good at palpation.


77) This system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients.

A) Digestive

B) Urinary

C) Reproductive

D) Circulatory

E) Lymphatic


78) This system regulates blood volume and pressure, stimulates red blood cell formation, and controls fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance.

A) Urinary system

B) Reproductive system

C) Digestive system

D) Muscular system

E) Circulatory system


79) The image of a typical chest X-ray shows a ________ view of the thoracic region.

A) sagittal

B) frontal

C) transverse

D) oblique

E) lateral


80) On average the resting heart rate of a healthy, normal adult human is between 70 and 80 beats per minute (bpm). A marathon runner may have a resting heart rate of 55 bpm. This is an example of

A) a normal anatomical variation.

B) an exercise-induced physiological variation.

C) a pathological physiological variation.

D) an abnormality.

E) a pathological anatomical variation.


81) Which of the following is not a condition that could result in physiological variation?

A) Sex

B) Physical activity level

C) Age

D) Diet

E) Time of day


82) When writing his/her notes, a doctor mistakenly misspells the intended word "ileum" as "ilium", stating "examine the ilium further". What is the possible outcome of this mistake?

A) It's just a spelling error, and it's obvious what the doctor meant.

B) The next practitioner may mistakenly examine the intestines when he/she should have been examining the hip.

C) The next practitioner may mistakenly examine the hip when he/she should have been examining the intestines.

D) The practitioner may mistakenly examine the knee when he/she should have been examining the lungs.

E) The practitioner may mistakenly examine the lungs when he/she should have been examining the knee.