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Test Bank for Development Through the Lifespan 7th Edition by Berk

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Test Bank for Development Through the Lifespan 7th Edition by Berk

Test Bank for Development Through the Lifespan 7th Edition by Berk 

Chapter 1
History, theory, and research strategies

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. Dr. Langley’s work is devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan. Dr. Langley’s field of study is __________.

A) genetics

B) clinical psychology

C) adolescent development

D) developmental science

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.1 What is developmental science, and what factors stimulated expansion of the field?

Topic: A Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

2. Although great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of investigators who study development, they share a single goal: to identify __________.

A) genetic factors that contribute to longevity

B) environmental factors that contribute to disease and illness

C) those factors that lead to abnormal development in children and adolescents

D) those factors that influence consistencies and transformations in people from conception to death

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.1 What is developmental science, and what factors stimulated expansion of the field?

Topic: A Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

3. Developmental science is __________ because it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields of study.

A) interdisciplinary

B) empirical

C) applied

D) theoretical

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.1 What is developmental science, and what factors stimulated expansion of the field?

Topic: A Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

4. A theory of development __________.

A) illustrates the ultimate truth about human behavior

B) describes, explains, and predicts behavior

C) explains all aspects of human growth

D) does not require scientific verification

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

5. According to the __________ view of development, the difference between the immature and the mature is simply one of amount or complexity.

A) nature

B) discontinuous

C) nurture

D) continuous

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

6. The discontinuous view of development holds that __________.

A) infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do

B) growth is the process of gradually augmenting the skills that were present from the beginning

C) infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving

D) development is a smooth process limited only by a lack of information and precision

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

7. Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the __________ perspective.

A) nurture

B) continuous

C) discontinuous

D) nature

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

8. New evidence suggests that __________.

A) there is very little cultural diversity in human development

B) environmental, but not personal, contexts shape development

C) development occurs in a neat, orderly sequence of stages unaffected by distinct contexts

D) people not only are affected by but also contribute to the contexts in which they develop

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

9. Tammy’s father is an exceptional gymnast. When Tammy was just a toddler, her father believed that Tammy already showed great promise as a gymnast. Tammy’s father probably believes that athletic ability is mostly determined by __________.

A) nurture

B) stages

C) nature

D) early experiences

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

10. Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of __________ in development.

A) nurture

B) stages

C) stability

D) nature

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

11. Theorists who contend that powerful negative events in the first few years cannot be fully overcome by later, more positive ones emphasize __________.

A) plasticity

B) stability

C) nurture

D) discontinuity

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

12. Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that __________.

A) change in response to influential experiences is possible

B) heredity, rather than the environment, influences behavior

C) individuals who are high in anxiety as children will remain so at later ages

D) early experiences establish a lifelong pattern of behavior

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

13. Increasingly, researchers __________.

A) assume that development stops at adolescence

B) view old age as a period of decline

C) view heredity as more influential than the environment

D) see development as a perpetually ongoing process

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

14. The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is __________.

A) static and stable

B) multidimensional and multidirectional

C) continuous, rather than discontinuous

D) largely the result of heredity

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 8

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

15. According to the lifespan perspective, __________ is supreme in its impact on the life course.

A) the prenatal period

B) early childhood

C) adolescence

D) no age period

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 8

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

16. Max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that __________.

A) aging is an eventual “shipwreck”

B) learning follows a predictable timetable

C) development is plastic at all ages

D) musical talent peaks in late adulthood

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 9

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

17. Which statement provides an example of an age-graded influence?

A) Paul learned to play the violin at age 11.

B) Frank got his driver’s license at age 16.

C) Martina got married at age 34.

D) Jesse learned to use a computer at age 21.

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 9

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

18. People born during the baby boom between 1946 and 1964 tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times due to __________ influences.

A) age-graded

B) history-graded

C) nonnormative

D) bio-historical

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 9‒10

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

19. __________ influences are irregular and do not follow a predictable timetable.

A) Nonnormative

B) History-graded

C) Age-graded

D) Bio-historical

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 10

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

20. Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father, she is a successful, happy, and healthy adult. Betty’s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development is known as __________.

A) assimilation

B) resilience

C) age-graded development

D) multidimensional development

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 10 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilience

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

21. The most consistent asset of resilient children is __________.

A) a strong bond with a competent, caring adult

B) high intelligence

C) an easygoing temperament

D) an association with a rule-abiding peer

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 11 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilience

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

22. The baby boomers __________.

A) were more economically underprivileged than their counterparts in the previous generation

B) adopted their parents’ family- and marriage-centered lifestyles in early adulthood

C) embraced growing old far more than their predecessors

D) were labeled a narcissistic, indulged, “me” generation

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 12 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: The Baby Boomers Reshape the Life Course

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

23. As a generation, the baby boomers are __________ than any previous mid- or late-life cohort.

A) healthier, but less educated

B) more educated, but less wealthy

C) more self-focused, but less healthy

D) healthier, better educated, and financially better off

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: The Baby Boomers Reshape the Life Course

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

24. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized __________ and __________.

A) the normative approach; survival of the fittest

B) noble savages; physical maturation

C) tabula rasa; natural selection

D) natural selection; survival of the fittest

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

25. __________ is generally regarded as the founder of the child study movement.

A) Charles Darwin

B) G. Stanley Hall

C) Alfred Binet

D) Sigmund Freud

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

26. G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell, __________.

A) discovered that prenatal growth is strikingly similar in many species

B) launched the normative approach

C) constructed the first standardized intelligence test

D) were the forefathers of psychoanalytic theory

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

27. Arnold Gesell __________

A) was among the first to write child-rearing books for parents

B) is generally regarded as the founder of the child study movement

C) foreshadowed lifespan research by writing a book on aging

D) constructed the first successful intelligence test

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

28. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon __________.

A) wrote the first book of its time on aging

B) were among the first to make child development knowledge meaningful to parents

C) regarded development as a maturational process

D) constructed the first successful intelligence test

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

29. The first successful intelligence test was originally constructed to __________.

A) measure individual differences in IQ

B) document age-related improvements in children’s intellectual functioning

C) identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes

D) compare the scores of people who varied in gender, ethnicity, and birth order

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

30. Dr. Torrez believes that how conflicts between biological drives and social expectations are resolved determines the person’s ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety. Dr. Torrez accepts the __________.

A) psychoanalytic perspective

B) psychosocial theory

C) cognitive-developmental theory

D) social learning theory

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

31. Sigmund Freud constructed his psychosexual theory __________.

A) on the basis of his adult patients’ memories of painful childhood events

B) by conducting studies of animal behavior

C) on the basis of interviews with institutionalized children and adolescents

D) by carefully observing his own children

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

32. Psychosexual theory emphasizes that __________.

A) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world

B) directly observable events—stimuli and responses—are the appropriate focus of psychological study

C) how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development

D) the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual a useful member of society

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

33. __________ theory was the first to stress the influence of the early parent‒child relationship on development.

A) Darwin’s

B) Freud’s

C) Erikson’s

D) Watson’s

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

34. One criticism of Freud’s psychosexual theory was that it __________.

A) did not apply to other cultures

B) underemphasized the influence of sexual feelings

C) compared human development to the evolution of the human species

D) offered too narrow a view of important environmental influences

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

35. Dr. Singh believes that a basic psychosocial conflict, which is resolved along a continuum from positive to negative, determines healthy or maladaptive outcomes at each stage of development. Dr. Singh’s beliefs are aligned with those of which theorist?

A) G. Stanley Hall

B) Sigmund Freud

C) Erik Erikson

D) B. F. Skinner

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

36. Dr. Faulkner believes that directly observable events—stimuli and responses—are the appropriate focus of the study of development. Dr. Faulkner probably follows the __________ perspective of development.

A) psychosexual

B) psychosocial

C) behaviorist

D) cognitive-developmental

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 16

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

37. Ivan Pavlov discovered __________.

A) observational learning

B) classical conditioning

C) the ego’s positive contributions to development

D) the clinical method

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 16

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

38. In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that __________.

A) children cannot be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus

B) infants as young as a few months old will repeat a behavior to obtain a desirable reward

C) children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus

D) children have an innate, inborn fear of rats

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 16

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

39. According to operant conditioning theory, __________.

A) the frequency of a behavior can be increased through punishment, such as disapproval

B) normal development must be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation

C) the id develops as parents insist that children conform to the values of society

D) the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 16

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

40. Baby Gabriella claps her hands after her mother does. Gabriella is displaying __________.

A) reinforcement

B) classical conditioning

C) observational learning

D) adaptation

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

41. According to __________ theory, children learn primarily through modeling.

A) reinforcement

B) operant conditioning

C) social learning

D) classical conditioning

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

42. Today, Albert Bandura’s theory stresses the importance of __________.

A) behavior modification

B) punishment

C) cognition

D) reinforcement

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

43. Cindy tells her daughter, “I know you can do a good job on that homework” because she believes that if she encourages persistence, her daughter will start to view herself as hardworking and high-achieving. Cindy is applying the __________ approach.

A) behavior modification

B) psychosocial

C) cognitive-developmental

D) social-cognitive

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

44. The goal of applied behavior analysis is to __________.

A) outline changes in temperament over the lifespan

B) eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses

C) examine how we think about ourselves and other people

D) synthesize information from various sources into a detailed picture of a person’s personality

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

45. Many theorists believe that behaviorism and social learning theory __________.

A) overemphasize the plasticity of cognitive development

B) overestimate people’s contributions to their own development

C) offer too narrow a view of important environmental influences

D) overemphasize each individual’s unique life history

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

46. According to Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, __________.

A) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world

B) children’s learning depends on reinforcers, such as rewards from adults

C) adult teaching is the best way to foster development

D) rapid development occurs during sensitive periods

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

47. Central to Piaget’s theory is the concept of __________.

A) imitation

B) adaptation

C) self-efficacy

D) scaffolding

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

48. According to Jean Piaget, __________ is the balance between internal structures and information that children encounter in their everyday worlds.

A) imitation

B) adaptation

C) cognition

D) equilibrium

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 18

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

49. Four-year-old R’Monte engages in make-believe play. He stirs beads in a bowl and says, “Soup is ready!” According to Piaget, R’Monte is in the __________ stage of cognitive development.

A) sensorimotor

B) preoperational

C) concrete operational

D) sociocultural

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 18

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

50. Sydney, when faced with a problem, starts with a hypothesis, deduces testable inferences, and isolates and combines variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Sydney is in Piaget’s __________ stage of development.

A) sensorimotor

B) preoperational

C) concrete operational

D) formal operational

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 18

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

51. Piaget’s critics point out that __________.

A) he overestimated the competencies of infants and young children

B) his stagewise account pays insufficient attention to social and cultural influences

C) discovery learning rather than adult teaching is the best way to foster development

D) children’s performances on Piagetian tasks cannot be improved with training

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 19

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

52. The information-processing approach views the human mind as a __________.

A) socially mediated process

B) collection of stimuli and responses

C) system of genetically programmed behaviors

D) symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 19

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

53. Lillian uses flowcharts to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks. Lillian is a(n) __________ theorist.

A) psychoanalytic

B) information-processing

C) psychosocial

D) social learning

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 19

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

54. Like Piaget’s theory, the information-processing approach __________.

A) divides development into stages

B) views development as discontinuous

C) regards people as actively making sense of their own thinking

D) has much to say about nonlinear cognition, such as imagination and creativity

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 20

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

55. A major strength of the information-processing approach to development is its commitment to __________.

A) the study of imagination

B) flexible case study interviews

C) rigorous research methods

D) disproving other developmental theories

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 20

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

56. One criticism of the information-processing approach is that it __________.

A) underestimates the individual’s contribution to his or her own development

B) ignores transformation in adulthood, concluding that no major cognitive changes occur after adolescence

C) underestimates the competencies of infants and preschoolers, focusing on older children and adolescents

D) is better at analyzing thinking into its components than at putting them back together into a comprehensive theory

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 20

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

57. Dr. Rizvi studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns. She is part of a group of researchers from the fields of psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine. This approach to development is known as __________.

A) behaviorism

B) cognitive-development theory

C) the information-processing approach

D) developmental cognitive neuroscience

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 20

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

58. Developmental social neuroscience __________.

A) involves the design of flowcharts to map the precise steps individuals use to complete tasks

B) emphasizes that preschoolers’ thinking is full of faulty logic because they engage in hands-on exploration

C) is devoted to studying the relationship between changes in the brain and emotional and social development

D) involves the study of brain activity and the individual’s linear and logical cognitive processing patterns

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 20

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

59. Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen laid the modern foundations for __________.

A) ethology

B) social learning theory

C) psychoanalytic theory

D) cognitive-developmental theory

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 21

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

60. Observations of imprinting led to which major concept in human development?

A) adaptation

B) equilibrium

C) the critical period

D) classical conditioning

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 21

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

61. What did John Bowlby believe?

A) Adults and more expert peers help children master culturally meaningful activities.

B) The infant‒caregiver bond has lifelong consequences for human relationships.

C) Parents and infants are both instinctively attached to each other.

D) Attachment patterns are difficult to study in humans.

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 22

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

62. Evolutionary developmental psychology __________.

A) focuses on how the structures of the mind develop to better fit with, or represent, the external world

B) seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide competencies as those competencies change with age

C) views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

D) brings together researchers from many fields to study changes in the brain and behavior patterns

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 22

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

63. Dr. Whiren studies how culture is transmitted to the next generation. Dr. Whiren’s research best aligns with the perspective of which theorist?

A) Jean Piaget

B) John Bowlby

C) Lev Vygotsky

D) Erik Erikson

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 22

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

64. Unlike Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a __________ process.

A) socially mediated

B) genetically predictable

C) preoperational

D) neurological

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 22

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

65. Vygotsky’s emphasis on culture and social experience led him to __________.

A) neglect the biological side of development

B) overemphasize the role of heredity in cognitive change

C) emphasize children’s independent efforts to make sense of their world

D) place too much emphasis on children’s capacity to shape their own development

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 23

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

66. Ecological systems theory views the person as __________.

A) a blossoming flower whose development is a genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically

B) developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

C) a social being influenced primarily by observational learning or adult modeling

D) a computer-like system that actively codes, transforms, and organizes information

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 23

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

67. Dr. Redmund characterizes his view of development as a bioecological model. His perspective is aligned with that of which theorist?

A) Jean Piaget

B) Urie Bronfenbrenner

C) Lev Vygotsky

D) Niko Tinbergen

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 23

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

68. According to ecological systems theory, interactions between Marina and her child, Tyler, occur in the __________.

A) microsystem

B) mesosystem

C) exosystem

D) macrosystem

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 23

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

69. The outermost level of Bronfenbrenner’s model is the __________.

A) microsystem

B) macrosystem

C) exosystem

D) mesosystem

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 24

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

70. Toby moved with his family just before he entered fourth grade. In ecological systems theory, the move represents a change in Toby’s __________.

A) microsystem

B) mesosystem

C) exosystem

D) chronosystem

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 24

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

71. According to research on family chaos, mothers who __________ experience greater psychological stress.

A) make family meals

B) frequently multitask

C) work outside the home

D) cosleep with their infants

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 25 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Family Chaos Undermines Parents’ and Children’s Well-Being

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

72. __________ can help prevent escalating demands on families that give way to chaos.

A) Parental multitasking

B) Eating separate meals

C) Compression of family routines

D) High-quality child care that is affordable and reliable

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 25 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Family Chaos Undermines Parents’ and Children’s Well-Being

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

73. Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory all stress __________.

A) nature over nurture

B) changes in thinking

C) unconscious motives and drives

D) the effects of punishment and reinforcement on behavior

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.7 Identify the stand taken by each major theory on the three basic issues of human development.

Topic: Comparing and Evaluating Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

74. Dr. George predicted that positive reinforcement would increase prosocial behavior in preschoolers. Dr. George’s prediction is an example of a __________.

A) theory

B) research question

C) hypothesis

D) research design

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

75. Which major theory of human development emphasizes plasticity at all ages?

A) psychoanalytic perspective

B) ethology

C) evolutionary developmental psychology

D) lifespan perspective

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.7 Identify the stand taken by each major theory on the three basic issues of human development.

Topic: Comparing and Evaluating Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

76. Taking tests and answering questionnaires are examples of __________.

A) research designs

B) theories

C) hypotheses

D) research methods

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

77. Which statement describes a strength of naturalistic observation?

A) It reflects the participants’ everyday lives.

B) It permits comparisons of participants’ responses.

C) Great depth and breadth of information can be obtained in a short time.

D) It grants each participant an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest.

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 28

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

78. Dr. Wu observes children’s responses to bullying by watching them play in a park. This is an example of a(n) __________.

A) ethnographic study

B) naturalistic observation

C) structured observation

D) clinical interview

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 28

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

79. In a __________, each participant has an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest.

A) clinical interview

B) naturalistic observation

C) structured observation

D) case study

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 28‒29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

80. A major limitation of systematic observation is that it __________.

A) provides little information on how participants actually behave

B) tells investigators little about the reasoning behind responses and behaviors

C) underestimates the capacities of individuals who have difficulty putting their thoughts into words

D) ignores participants with poor memories, who may have trouble recalling exactly what happened

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

81. Self-reports __________.

A) use a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant’s point of view

B) describe the entire stream of behavior—everything said and done over a certain time period

C) range from relatively unstructured interviews to highly structured interviews, questionnaires, and tests

D) bring together a wide range of information on one person, including interviews, observations, and test scores

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

82. A major strength of the clinical interview is that it __________.

A) makes comparing individuals’ responses very easy

B) can provide a large amount of information in a fairly brief period

C) is directed toward understanding a culture or distinct social group

D) allows researchers to see the behavior of interest as it occurs in natural settings

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

83. Which statement describes a limitation of the clinical method?

A) It may not yield observations typical of participants’ behavior in everyday life.

B) Researchers cannot control conditions under which participants are observed.

C) The findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant.

D) It does not usually yield rich, descriptive insights into factors that affect development.

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

84. The parents at Central Elementary School responded to a multiple choice questionnaire that asked them what they considered the most important activity they do with their child. This is an example of a __________.

A) structured interview

B) clinical interview

C) naturalistic observation

D) structured observation

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

85. Structured interviews __________.

A) do not yield the same depth of information as a clinical interview

B) are flexible because questions are phrased differently for each participant

C) bring together a wide range of information on one person

D) tell researchers little about the reasoning behind participants’ responses

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

86. Which research method is an outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory?

A) naturalistic observation

B) structured observation

C) ethnography

D) the clinical method

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

87. Dr. Bigelow is interested in studying musical prodigies. Which method is best suited for this type of research?

A) naturalistic observation

B) clinical interview

C) case study

D) structured interview

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

88. The clinical method __________.

A) allows investigators to see directly the everyday behaviors they hope to explain

B) must be conducted with large groups of people at the same time

C) provides little information on how children and adults actually behave

D) yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

89. Which research method was borrowed from the field of anthropology?

A) ethnography

B) clinical interview

C) structured interview

D) systematic observation

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

90. Ethnographic research is directed toward understanding a culture through __________ observation.

A) naturalistic

B) participant

C) systematic

D) structured

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 30‒31

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

91. Jade spent two years in a Mexican-American community studying communication between parents and children. Jade was using __________.

A) naturalistic observation

B) ethnography

C) self-reports

D) structured observation

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 31

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

92. What is one limitation of the ethnographic method?

A) Investigators’ cultural values sometimes lead them to misinterpret what they see.

B) It provides little information on how children and adults actually behave.

C) It relies on unobtrusive techniques, such as surveillance cameras and one-way mirrors.

D) It provides little information about the reasoning behind participants’ responses.

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 31

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

93. The two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior are __________ and __________.

A) observational; experimental

B) correlational; experimental

C) observational; correlational

D) variable; observational

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 31

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

94. In a correlational design, researchers __________.

A) gather information on individuals without altering their experiences

B) divide events and behaviors of interest into two types: dependent and independent variables

C) use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions

D) directly control or manipulate changes in the independent variable

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 31

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

95. Students who are foreign-born or first-generation Americans __________ than students of native-born parents.

A) are more likely to commit delinquent and violent acts

B) are more likely to be obese

C) often achieve in school as well as or better

D) tend to report lower self-esteem

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 32 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

96. Ethnographies reveal that immigrant parents view __________ as the surest way to improve life chances.

A) learning English

B) education

C) close ties to an ethnic community

D) moving into an urban area

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 32 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe methods commonly used in research on human development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

97. Dr. Dias’s research shows that the death of a spouse in old age is correlated with a decline in the surviving partner’s physical health. Which conclusion is supported by this study?

A) The death of a spouse causes a decline in the surviving partner’s physical health.

B) The death of a spouse is related to a decline in the surviving partner’s physical health.

C) A decline in a surviving partner’s physical health can cause the death of a spouse.

D) A third variable, such as memory loss, causes a surviving partner’s decline in physical health following the death of a spouse.

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

98. In correlational studies, a(n) __________ can range in value from +1.00 to ‒1.00.

A) independent variable

B) dependent variable

C) cause-and-effect relationship

D) correlation coefficient

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

99. Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drug use and levels of adolescent delinquency. This correlation is __________ and __________.

A) moderate; positive

B) low; positive

C) high; negative

D) low; negative

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

100. Dr. Anderson wants to conduct a study to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between domestic violence and anger in children. Dr. Anderson should use a(n) __________ design.

A) structured

B) observational

C) correlational

D) experimental

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

101. An experimental design __________.

A) allows researchers to gather information in natural life circumstances without altering the participants’ experiences

B) looks at relationships between participants’ characteristics and their behavior or development

C) permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers evenhandedly assign people to treatment conditions

D) has one major limitation: researchers cannot infer cause and effect

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

102. In an experiment, the independent variable __________.

A) is the one the investigator expects to be influenced by another variable

B) is the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable

C) cannot be manipulated or controlled by the researcher

D) is the number that describes how two measures are associated with each other

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

103. In an experimental study examining whether the way angry encounters end affects children’s emotional reactions, the dependent variable would be the __________.

A) way the angry encounters end

B) amount of unresolved anger

C) frequency of angry encounters

D) children’s emotional reactions

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

104. In an experimental study examining whether children who are read to more often score higher on vocabulary tests in first grade, the independent variable would be the __________.

A) frequency of read-alouds

B) type of books parents read

C) child’s vocabulary score

D) difficulty of vocabulary words

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

105. By using __________ assignment of participants to treatment conditions, investigators increase the chances that participants’ characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups.

A) sequential

B) random

C) systematic

D) correlational

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 33‒34

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

106. Dr. McBride wants to know if the teacher’s use of encouragement in the classroom affects the children’s self-esteem. To assign children to treatment conditions, Dr. McBride should __________.

A) carefully distribute the children according to their test scores

B) divide the children so each group has an equal number of boys and girls

C) draw the children’s names out of a hat

D) assign the quieter children to the same treatment condition

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 33‒34

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

107. In field experiments, researchers __________.

A) selectively assign participants to treatment conditions in natural settings

B) cannot used random assignment or manipulate treatment conditions

C) randomly assign participants to treatment conditions in natural settings

D) have stronger control over the treatment than in the laboratory

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 34

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

108. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents to either a single-grade classroom or a mixed-age classroom. This is an example of a __________.

A) naturalistic observation

B) case study

C) natural experiment

D) field experiment

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 34

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

109. What is one strength of the cross-sectional design?

A) It provides evidence about individual trends.

B) It cannot be threatened by cohort effects.

C) It is not plagued with dropout or practice effects.

D) It permits longitudinal comparisons.

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 34

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

110. In a(n) __________ design, participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older.

A) cross-sectional

B) experimental

C) longitudinal

D) correlational

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

111. Longitudinal research can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development because the investigator __________.

A) studies groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time

B) randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions

C) tracks the performance of each person over time

D) conducts quasi-experiments, comparing conditions that already exist

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

112. A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can __________.

A) examine relationships between early and later behaviors

B) collect a large amount of data in a short time span

C) explore similarities among children of different cohorts

D) study participants differing in age at the same point in time

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

113. What is one problem with longitudinal research?

A) It does not permit inferences about cause-and-effect relationships.

B) Participants may move away or drop out of the research.

C) Findings may not generalize to the real world.

D) It does not permit study of individual developmental trends.

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

114. Bernadette, a participant in a longitudinal study, became quite familiar with the test over time and, as a result, her performance improved. This limitation of longitudinal research is known as __________.

A) biased sampling

B) practice effects

C) random assignment

D) cohort effects

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

115. Professor Higgins is concerned about the findings of a longitudinal study on childhood depression that she conducted between 1985 and 2015 in New York because many of the participants witnessed the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Professor Higgins is concerned about __________ effects.

A) practice

B) cross-sectional

C) dropout

D) cohort

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

116. In a cross-sectional design, researchers study __________.

A) the same group of participants repeatedly at different ages

B) groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time

C) groups of participants of the same age in different years

D) participants of the same age at the same point in time

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 36

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

117. What is a major disadvantage of cross-sectional research?

A) Age-related changes cannot be examined.

B) Participants often drop out before the study is over.

C) Factors affecting individual development cannot be explored.

D) Practice effects often cause biased findings.

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 36

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

118. Like longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies can be threatened by __________.

A) practice effects

B) participant dropout

C) sequential timing

D) cohort effects

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 36

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

119. To overcome some of the limitations of traditional developmental designs, investigators sometimes use __________ designs, in which they conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies.

A) sequential

B) experimental

C) correlational

D) quasi-experimental

 

Answer: A

Page Ref: 36

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

120. A sequential design __________.

A) does not address diversity in developmental outcomes

B) permits researchers to check if cohort effects are operating

C) is less efficient than a longitudinal design

D) makes cross-sectional, but not longitudinal, comparisons

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 36

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

121. Today, research that combines an experimental strategy with __________ approach is becoming increasingly common.

A) both a correlational and a sequential

B) either a correlational or a sequential

C) either a longitudinal or a cross-sectional

D) both a correlational and a longitudinal

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 37

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

122. When children are research participants, __________.

A) investigators need to seek the opinion of others if in doubt about the harmful effects of research

B) they do not have the right to concealment of their identity on information collected in the course of research

C) there is no need to inform them or their parents of the results of the research

D) informed consent of their parents as well as others who act on their behalf should be obtained

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 38

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.11 What special ethical concerns arise in research on human development?

Topic: Ethics in Lifespan Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

123. Dr. O’Connor wants 90-year-old Mr. Takashi to participate in a research study that involves moderate risks. Mr. Takashi is incapable of consenting. Which statement best expresses your advice regarding Mr. Takashi’s participation in the study?

A) He should not be allowed to participate in the study under any circumstances.

B) He should be allowed to participate in the study regardless of the benefit.

C) He should be allowed to participate in the study only if his participation will benefit others.

D) He should be allowed to participate in the study only if it is likely to benefit him directly.

 

Answer: D

Page Ref: 38

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.11 What special ethical concerns arise in research on human development?

Topic: Ethics in Lifespan Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

124. In his research study, Dr. Johnson gives participants false feedback about their performance. Consequently, Dr. Johnson should use __________ after the research session is over.

A) informed consent

B) a privacy statement

C) debriefing

D) a placebo

 

Answer: C

Page Ref: 39

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.11 What special ethical concerns arise in research on human development?

Topic: Ethics in Lifespan Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

125. Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if __________.

A) the participants are young enough that they would not understand the deception

B) investigators satisfy institutional review boards that such practices are necessary

C) researchers can observe participants from behind one-way mirrors

D) the participants give informed consent and the researchers never reveal the real purpose of the study

 

Answer: B

Page Ref: 39

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.11 What special ethical concerns arise in research on human development?

Topic: Ethics in Lifespan Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

Essay

 

126. Explain the difference between human development theories that view the course of development as continuous and those that see it as discontinuous.

 

Answer: If development is continuous—a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with—then infants and children respond to the world in much the same way as adults do. The difference between the immature and mature being is simply one of amount or complexity. If development is discontinuous—a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times—then infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving, ones quite different from those of adults. Theories that accept the discontinuous perspective regard development as taking place in stages—qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development. In stage theories, development is like climbing a staircase, with each step corresponding to a more mature, reorganized way of functioning. The stage concept also assumes that people undergo periods of rapid transformation as they step up from one stage to the next. In other words, change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing.

Page Ref: 6

 

127. Describe the role that Arnold Gesell played in the study of human development.

 

Answer: Inspired by the work of Charles Darwin, Arnold Gesell and his teacher, G. Stanley Hall, devised theories based on evolutionary ideas. They regarded development as a maturational process—a genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically, much like a flower. Hall and Gesell are remembered for their intensive efforts to describe all aspects of development. They launched the normative approach, in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development. Gesell collected detailed normative information on the motor achievements, social behaviors, and personality characteristics of infants and children. He was also among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents by informing them of what to expect at each age. His child-rearing books became a central part of a rapidly expanding child development literature for parents.

Page Ref: 14

 

128. Describe the criticisms of Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory.

 

Answer: Despite Jean Piaget’s overwhelming contributions to the field of human development, his cognitive-developmental theory has been challenged. Research indicates that Piaget underestimated the competencies of infants and preschoolers. When young children are given tasks scaled down in difficulty and relevant to their everyday experiences, their understanding appears closer to that of the older child and adult than Piaget assumed. Also, adolescents generally reach their full intellectual potential only in areas of endeavor in which they have had extensive education and experience. These findings have led many researchers to conclude that cognitive maturity depends heavily on the complexity of knowledge sampled and the individual’s familiarity with the task. Furthermore, children’s performance on Piagetian problems can be improved with training—findings that call into question Piaget’s assumption that discovery learning rather than adult teaching is the best way to foster development. Critics also point out that Piaget’s stagewise account pays insufficient attention to social and cultural influences on development. Finally, lifespan theorists—challenging Piaget’s conclusion that no major cognitive changes occur after adolescence—have proposed important transformations in adulthood.

Page Ref: 19

 

129. Describe the exosystem as it exists in Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory.

 

Answer: According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, human development takes place within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. Bronfenbrenner envisioned the environment as a series of nested structures, including but also extending beyond the home, school, neighborhood, and workplace settings in which people spend their everyday lives. Each layer joins with the others to powerfully affect development. The exosystem consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences in immediate settings. These can be formal organizations, such as the individual’s workplace, religious institution, or community health and welfare services. Flexible work schedules, paid maternity and paternity leave, and sick leave for parents whose children are ill are examples of ways that work settings can support child rearing and, indirectly, enhance the development of both adult and child. Exosystem supports can also be informal, such as parents’ social networks—friends and extended-family members who provide advice, companionship, and even financial assistance. Research confirms the negative impact of a breakdown in exosystem activities. Families who are affected by unemployment or who are socially isolated, with few personal or community-based ties, show increased rates of conflict and child abuse.

Page Ref: 23‒24

 

130. Compare and contrast naturalistic and structured observations.

 

Answer: Observations of the behavior of children and adults can be made in different ways. One approach is to go into the field, or natural environment, and record the behavior of interest—a method called naturalistic observation. The great strength of naturalistic observation is that investigators can see directly the everyday behaviors they hope to explain. Naturalistic observation also has a major limitation: Not all individuals have the same opportunity to display a particular behavior in everyday life. Researchers commonly deal with this difficulty by making structured observations, in which the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has equal opportunity to display the response. The procedures used to collect systematic observations vary, depending on the research problem posed. Sometimes investigators choose to describe the entire stream of behavior—everything said and done over a certain time period. Systematic observation provides invaluable information on how children and adults actually behave, but it tells us little about the reasoning behind their responses. For that information, researchers must turn to self-report techniques.

Page Ref: 28‒29

 

131. Describe longitudinal design, and explain its strengths and weaknesses.

 

Answer: In a longitudinal design, participants are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older. The time spanned may be relatively short (a few months to several years) or very long (a decade or even a lifetime). The longitudinal approach has two major strengths. First, because it tracks the performance of each person over time, researchers can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development. Second, longitudinal studies permit investigators to examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors. Despite their strengths, longitudinal investigations pose a number of problems. For example, participants may move away or drop out of the research for other reasons. This biases the sample so that it no longer represents the population to whom researchers would like to generalize their findings. Also, from repeated study, people may become more aware of their own thoughts, feelings, and actions and revise them in ways that have little to do with age-related change. In addition, they may become “test-wise.” Their performance may improve as a result of practice effects—better test-taking skills and increased familiarity with the test—not because of factors commonly associated with development. The most widely discussed threat to the accuracy of longitudinal findings is cohort effects: Individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to people developing at other times. But, cohort effects do not just operate broadly on an entire generation. They also occur when specific experiences influence some groups of individuals but not others in the same generation.

Page Ref: 35‒36