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Test Bank for Essentials of Life Span Development 5th Edition By Santrock

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Test Bank for Essentials of Life Span Development 5th Edition By Santrock

Test Bank for Essentials of Life Span Development 5th Edition By Santrock

 

1. Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that:

A. begins at childhood and continues until adulthood.

B. begins at conception and continues until adulthood.

C. begins at birth and continues through the human life span.

D. begins at conception and continues through the human life span.

 

Page: 2

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

2. The _____ approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, especially during infancy, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age.

A. prescriptive

B. constructivist

C. traditional

D. evolutionary

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

3. When teaching his psychology class, Professor Sharma emphasizes that developmental change occurs throughout adulthood as well as childhood. Professor Sharma is taking a(n) _____ approach to developmental change.

A. life-span

B. evolutionary

C. normative

D. constructivist

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

4. Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One follows a traditional approach to developmental change; the other follows the life-span approach. Which of the following issues would they most likely differ on?

A. Whether developmental change starts at birth or at conception

B. Whether the tabula rasa or innate goodness positions were correct

C. Whether most developmental change occurs from birth to adolescence or throughout adulthood as well as childhood

D. Whether the earlier theorists, such as Freud and Jung, were correct or whether the later theorists, such as Piaget and Skinner, were correct about developmental change

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

5. On your first day of class, Professor Red-Elk claims that for too long we have focused on the development of young children, especially infants. She argues that the development of adults and elderly people is just as important. This professor is articulating a(n) _____ approach.

A. evolutionary

B. constructivist

C. normative

D. life-span

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

6. The maximum life span of humans:

A. has increased over time.

B. has not changed since the beginning of recorded history.

C. has matched their life expectancy in recent times.

D. is about 65 years as the first decade of the twenty-first century draws to a close.

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

7. Life expectancy in the United States has increased by _____ years during the twentieth century.

A. 20

B. 10

C. 30

D. 50

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

8. The life expectancy in the United States is currently:

A. 60 years.

B. 79 years.

C. 85 years.

D. 53 years.

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

9. If you subscribe to Paul Baltes’s perspective of life-span development, which of the following statements would you NOT agree with?

A. Development is lifelong.

B. Development is unidirectional.

C. Development is plastic.

D. Development is contextual.

 

Page: 4

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

10. If you subscribe to Paul Baltes’s perspective of life-span development, you would view development as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and ____________.

A. fulfillment

B. regulation of loss

C. decline

D. stability

 

Page: 4

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

11. The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:

A. plastic.

B. contextual.

C. multidimensional.

D. lifelong.

 

Page: 4

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

12. The idea that no age period is more important than any other highlights the life-span perspective that development is:

A. plastic.

B. contextual.

C. multidimensional.

D. lifelong.

 

Page: 4

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

13. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:

A. multidirectional.

B. contextual.

C. multidimensional.

D. plastic.

 

Page: 4

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

14. Many individuals become wiser as they age, but their performance on tasks that require speed in processing information starts to decline. This illustrates how throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink, or how development is:

A. plastic.

B. contextual.

C. multidisciplinary.

D. multidirectional.

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

15. During adolescence, as individuals establish romantic relationships, other relationships with friends may decrease. This illustrates how throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink, or how development is:

A. plastic.

B. contextual.

C. multidisciplinary.

D. multidirectional.

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

16. _____ refers to the capacity for change.

A. Elasticity

B. Plasticity

C. Contextuality

D. Tenacity

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

17. Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old and is currently enrolled in a college algebra course. He is pleasantly surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not taking a formal math class for over 30 years. Researchers would consider this an instance that illustrates how development is:

A. plastic.

B. multidisciplinary.

C. lifelong.

D. contextual.

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

18. “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.” This old saying refutes Paul Baltes’s life-span perspective that views development as being:

A. plastic.

B. multidisciplinary.

C. lifelong.

D. contextual.

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

19. Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all share an interest in understanding development through the life span. This indicates how development is:

A. multidirectional.

B. plastic.

C. multidisciplinary.

D. multidimensional.

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

20. “Individuals are changing beings in a changing world.” Which characteristic of development is reflected in this statement?

A. Development is multidisciplinary.

B. Development is contextual.

C. Development is multidimensional.

D. Development is multidirectional.

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

21. A focus on the normative age-graded and normative history-graded influences highlights the characteristic in the life-span perspective that development is:

A. multidisciplinary.

B. contextual.

C. multidimensional.

D. multidirectional.

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

22. _____ include biological processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural and environmental processes such as beginning formal education and retirement.

A. Normative age-graded influences

B. Normative history-graded influences

C. Nonnormative age-graded events

D. Nonnormative life events

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

23. The finding that most women enter menopause by age 51 is an example of how a biological process can exert a _____ influence on development.

A. plastic

B. multidirectional

C. normative age-graded

D. nonnormative age-graded

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

24. Influences that generally affect a generation—for example, the effect of the Vietnam war on the baby boomers—are considered _____ influences.

A. nonnormative multidirectional

B. normative age-graded

C. nonnormative age-graded

D. normative history-graded

 

Page: 5:

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

25. The cultural makeup of the U.S. population has changed over the past few years due to immigration and other factors. Such long-term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population are part of:

A. nonnormative multidirectional change.

B. normative historical change.

C. nonnormative life events.

D. nonnormative demographic change.

 

Page: 6

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

26. When she was a child, Anna’s home was wrecked by a tornado and her neighbor was killed. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified of storms. This is an example of how a ____ event can influence a person’s development.

A. normative age-graded

B. normative generational

C. nonnormative life

D. normative history-graded

 

Page: 6

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

27. Nonnormative life events:

A. do not happen to all people.

B. happen to younger children but not to older adults.

C. are common to people of a particular generation.

D. influence the cultural makeup of a population.

 

Page: 6

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

28. Keith has won the lottery and now has more money than he ever dreamed of having. This incident will likely affect Keith’s development and is an example of a:

A. normative history-graded influence.

B. nonnormative life event.

C. nonnormative history-graded influence.

D. normative age-graded influence.

 

Page: 6

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

29. Keesha’s father died unexpectedly in an accident when she was four years old. This incident will likely affect Keesha’s development and is an example of a:

A. normative history-graded influence.

B. nonnormative life event.

C. nonnormative history-graded influence.

D. normative age-graded influence.

 

Page: 6

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

30. Agatha is 83 years old. According to Baltes and his colleagues, _____ and _____ in her capacities will take center stage.

A. growth; maintenance

B. maintenance; regulation of loss

C. regulation of loss; augmentation

D. growth; regulation of loss

 

Page: 6

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

31. _____ encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

A. Culture

B. Genotype

C. Social policy

D. Ethnocentricity

 

Page: 7

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

32. Dr. Wilman is researching the place women occupy in families in both Japan and the United States. Dr. Wilman is conducting a(n) _____ study.

A. longitudinal

B. ethnocentric

C. cross-cultural

D. decentralized

 

Page: 8

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

33. Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to:

A. the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

B. a person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.

C. the degree to which development is similar or universal across cultures.

D. a social label placed on a similar group of people based on their heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.

 

Page: 8

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

34. When people are grouped based on similar occupations, educational achievements, and financial circumstances, they are being grouped by:

A. gender.

B. socioeconomic status.

C. culture.

D. geographic region.

 

Page: 8

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

35. _____ is(are) a national government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.

A. Social policy

B. Generational policy

C. Cultural legislation

D. Socialized equity programs

 

Page: 8

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

36. In 2014, the percentage of U.S. children under 18 years of age living in families with incomes below the poverty line was:

A. below 10%.

B. between 10% and 20%.

C. between 20% and 30%.

D. between 30% and 40%.

 

Page: 9

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

37. The main areas of focus of the Ascent two-generation educational intervention are economic support, social capital, and:

A. increasing education for mothers and improving early education for children.

B. increasing the number of students in elementary school classrooms.

C. decreasing the number of special education teachers in our school system.

D. decreasing teacher benefits to increase school budgets.

 

Page: 9

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

38. Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults are more likely to be:

A. married.

B. living in a nursing home.

C. living with a relative.

D. childless.

 

Page: 10

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

39. Going by current trends, 86-year-old Matilda is likely to be living:

A. with a spouse.

B. with children.

C. by herself.

D. with grandchildren.

 

Page: 10

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

40. Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults today are:

A. more likely to be married.

B. more likely to be childless.

C. less likely to be living alone.

D. less likely to need social relationships and support.

 

Page: 10

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

41. Two concepts that help provide a framework for describing and understanding an individual’s development are:

A. developmental attributes and behavior.

B. developmental characteristics and traits.

C. developmental challenges and opportunities.

D. developmental processes and periods.

 

Page: 10

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Biological Processes

 

42. Changes in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples of _____ processes that affect development.

A. cognitive

B. biological

C. socioemotional

D. cultural

 

Page: 10

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Biological Processes

 

43. _____ processes refer to changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.

A. Cognitive

B. Biological

C. Socioemotional

D. Cultural

 

Page: 11

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Cognitive Processes

 

44. Putting together a two-word sentence and solving a crossword puzzle are examples of _____ processes that affect development.

A. cognitive

B. biological

C. socioemotional

D. cultural

 

Page: 11

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Cognitive Processes

 

45. _____ processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.

A. Cognitive

B. Biological

C. Socioemotional

D. Polycentric

 

Page: 11

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Socioemotional Processes

 

46. A toddler’s aggressive attack on a playmate and an adolescent’s joy at the senior prom are examples of _____ processes that affect development.

A. cognitive

B. biological

C. socioemotional

D. polycentric

 

Page: 11

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Socioemotional Processes

 

47. The connection across biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes is most obvious in the two rapidly emerging fields of:

A. developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.

B. developmental biological neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.

C. developmental socioemotional pharmacology and developmental biological pharmacology.

D. developmental cognitive biology and developmental cognitive biology.

 

Page: 11

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Socioemotional Processes

 

48. Developmental periods, such as when one is an infant, adolescent, or middle-aged person, refer to:

A. historical circumstances common to people of a particular generation.

B. time frames in a person’s life that are characterized by certain features.

C. time frames in which a person experiences maximum change.

D. time frames in a nation’s history that are characterized by rapid development.

 

Page: 11

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

49. The _____ period is the time from conception to birth.

A. perinatal

B. prenatal

C. neonatal

D. postnatal

 

Page: 11:

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

50. Jonathan is almost completely dependent on his parents for his wants and needs and is only just beginning to acquire language skills and sensorimotor coordination. Which of the following development periods is Jonathan in?

A. Late childhood

B. Middle childhood

C. Early childhood

D. Infancy

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

51. Mary is three years old and in preschool. Identify the development period that Mary is currently in.

A. Infancy

B. Early childhood

C. Middle childhood

D. Late childhood

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

52. Joey has shot up in height over the past year, has developed a deeper voice, and is starting to grow facial hair. He is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Which of the following periods of development is Joey in?

A. Middle childhood

B. Adolescence

C. Early adulthood

D. Late childhood

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

53. Brittany is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Her thoughts are more logical, abstract, and idealistic. She is also experiencing rapid physical changes such as gains in height and weight. Which of the following periods of development is Brittany most likely in?

A. Middle childhood

B. Late adulthood

C. Late childhood

D. Adolescence

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

54. _____ is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and, for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.

A. Early adulthood

B. Late adolescence

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

55. Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He is also wondering if he should move in with his girlfriend and about their long-term prospects. Travis is most likely in the _____ period of development.

A. late adolescence

B. early adulthood

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

56. Continuing into our late thirties, the _____ period of development is the time we establish our economic independence.

A. late adolescence

B. early adulthood

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

57. Palma and her husband Frankie are in their late forties. They are leaders in their community and supervisors in their respective careers. Which of the following developmental periods are they in?

A. Central adulthood

B. The nesting years

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

58. Peter is a senior partner at his law firm and is an important member of his church and community. Both of his children are in college. Peter’s situation is most representative of which period of development?

A. Early adulthood

B. Middle adulthood

C. Late adulthood

D. Retirement

 

Page: 12

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

59. Late adulthood is a time of:

A. life review, adjustment to new social roles, and diminishing strength and health.

B. expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility.

C. establishing personal and economic independence and advancing in a career.

D. selecting a mate, learning to live with that person in an intimate way, starting a family, and raising children.

 

Page: 12

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

60. Jessica spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has witnessed. She is adjusting to decreasing strength and health, and she has made several lifestyle changes as a result. Jessica is most likely in the _____ period of development.

A. adolescence

B. early adulthood

C. middle adulthood

D. late adulthood

 

Page: 12

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

61. _____ has the longest span of any period of development and the number of people in this age group has been increasing dramatically.

A. Middle and late childhood

B. Adolescence

C. Middle adulthood

D. Late adulthood

 

Page: 12

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

62. Based on the fact that she is 90 years old, Katie-Lou would most likely be characterized as:

A. young-old.

B. middle-old.

C. oldest-old.

D. late-old.

 

Page: 12

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

63. Which of the following statements about the “young-old” is TRUE?

A. They are people between 60 and 65 years of age.

B. They have little potential for physical and cognitive fitness.

C. They show considerable loss in cognitive skills.

D. They can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging.

 

Page: 12

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

64. The 35-year-old grandmother, the 65-year-old father of a preschooler, the 15-year-old surgeon, and the 70-year-old student all serve to illustrate that:

A. old assumptions about the proper timing of life events no longer govern our lives.

B. developmental age is becoming increasingly irrelevant.

C. chronological age is becoming a more accurate predictor of life events in our society.

D. biological age is becoming increasingly relevant.

 

Page: 13

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

65. Determining _____ age involves knowing the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.

A. social

B. chronological

C. biological

D. psychological

 

Page: 13

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

66. Betty, 66 years old, is in great physical shape. She works out at the gym every day, and recently her doctor told her she is in exceptionally good health. Betty is young in terms of her _____ age.

A. social

B. chronological

C. psychological

D. biological

 

Page: 13

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

67. The younger the person’s _____ age, the longer the person is expected to live, regardless of chronological age.

A. biological

B. mental

C. social

D. psychological

 

Page: 13

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

68. Ramada, 69, an avid golfer and fitness enthusiast, recently got a comprehensive health exam done, and her physician remarked that her vital organs were in such good shape that her _____ age was about 10 years less than her chronological age.

A. social

B. mental

C. biological

D. psychological

 

Page: 13

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

69. _____ age is an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.

A. Social

B. Psychological

C. Physical

D. Biological

 

Page: 13

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

70. The finding that a higher level of conscientiousness was protective in older adults provides evidence that _____ age is an important developmental consideration.

A. social

B. psychological

C. physical

D. biological

 

Page: 13

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

71. The finding that individuals who have better social relationships with others tend to live longer than individuals who are lonely provides evidence that _______ is an important developmental consideration.

A. chronological age

B. social age

C. psychological age

 

D. biological age

 

Page: 13

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

72. In predicting an adult woman’s behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a three-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. This reflects the concept of:

A. chronological age.

B. social age.

C. psychological age.

D. biological age.

 

Page: 13

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

73. Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of age considered in a life-span perspective?

A. Chronological age

B. Developmental age

C. Psychological age

D. Biological age

 

Page: 13

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

74. _____ characterizes individuals for whom psychological functioning often peaks in early middle age, remains relatively stable until the late fifties to early sixties, and then shows modest decline.

A. Successful aging

B. Normal aging

C. Psychological aging

D. Pathological aging

 

Page: 13

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

75. _____ characterizes individuals who show greater than average decline as they age through the adult years.

A. Successful aging

B. Normal aging

C. Psychological aging

D. Pathological aging

 

Page: 14

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

76. Individuals who have the best biological, social, and psychological age are also showing:

A. successful aging.

B. normal aging.

C. psychological aging.

D. pathological aging.

 

Page: 14

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

77. According to recent research on age and happiness, whom would we expect to be the happiest?

A. Marge, who is 18 years old

B. Barry, who is 27 years old

C. Kimberly, who is 45 years old

D. Jeremiah, who is 74 years old

 

Page: 14

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

78. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons older individuals are happier and report more satisfaction with their lives?

A. An increase in physical problems

B. Better relationships with the people that matter to them

C. More time for leisurely pursuits

D. Many years of experience that may help them adapt to their circumstances

 

Page: 14

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

79. Which of the following is NOT one of the recent findings in the study of life satisfaction?

A. Young adults show the highest levels of life satisfaction.

B. Some studies show low life satisfaction in middle age.

C. Studies have found differences in life satisfaction across different countries.

D. Physical health has an affect on life satisfaction.

 

Page: 14

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

80. The finding that the hedonic aspects of life course trajectories take an upward trajectory from early adulthood through late adulthood is referred to as a(n) _____ effect.

A. developmental

B. biological

C. evaluative

D. positivity

 

Page: 14

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

81. Nature versus nurture, stability versus change, and continuity versus discontinuity are considered _____ issues.

A. developmental

B. physical

C. social

D. emotional

 

Page: 15

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Developmental Issues

 

82. Dr. Jacobs studies identical twins from birth to two years old to learn about similarities and differences in their development. Dr. Jacobs is interested in the development issues of:

A. nature and nature.

B. stability and change.

C. continuity and discontinuity.

D. cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects.

 

Page: 15

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Developmental Issues

 

83. In the nature-nurture issue, nature refers to an organism’s _____; nurture refers to its _____.

A. personality traits; abilities

B. attributes; ecological heritage

C. biological inheritance; environmental experiences

D. acquired traits; heredity

 

Page: 15

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Nature and Nurture

 

84. When comparing the effects of homeschooling and traditional classrooms on students’ social development, researchers are exploring:

A. traits.

B. nature.

C. nurture.

D. heritage.

 

Page: 15

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Nature and Nurture

 

85. Proponents of the importance of _____ acknowledge that extreme environments, such as those that are psychologically barren or hostile, can depress development.

A. traits

B. nature

C. nurture

D. heritage

 

Page: 15

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Nature and Nurture

 

86. The _____ issue involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or alter life.

A. growth-decline

B. stability-change

C. traits-characteristics

D. permanence-evanescence

 

Page: 16

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Stability and Change

 

87. Gina’s therapist attributes her delinquent behavior to heredity and to the gross neglect she suffered as a baby at the hands of her alcoholic mother. Gina’s therapist appears to be emphasizing the _____ aspect of her development.

A. personality

B. plastic

C. discontinuity

D. stability

 

Page: 16

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Stability and Change

 

88. In the continuity-discontinuity issue in development, continuity refers to _____, whereas discontinuity implies ______.

A. abrupt change; stability

B. gradual change; distinct stages

C. qualitative change; quantitative change

D. discrete stages; gradations

 

Page: 16

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Continuity and Discontinuity

 

89. The concept of discontinuity is characterized by:

A. qualitative change.

B. quantitative change.

C. collective change.

D. measured change.

 

Page: 16

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Continuity and Discontinuity

 

90. Dr. Drew is a scientist interested in the effects of music on cognitive development. Which of the following describes the sequence he should go through?

A. Collect research information (data), conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, analyze data, and draw conclusions.

B. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, collect research information (data), analyze data, and draw conclusions.

C. Collect research information (data), analyze data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, and draw conclusions.

D. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, draw conclusions, collect research information (data), and analyze data.

 

Page: 16

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Scientific Method

 

91. A coherent set of ideas that helps to explain data and make predictions is called a(n):

A. theory.

B. classification.

C. hypothesis.

D. axiom.

 

Page: 17

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Scientific Method

 

92. Dr. Perkins predicts that children who spend more than two years playing a musical instrument will score higher on IQ tests than children who do not play music. This testable prediction is known as a(n):

A. hypothesis.

B. classification.

C. variable.

D. axiom.

 

Page: 17

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Scientific Method

 

93. Which of the following is NOT true of the five theoretical orientations to development?

A. Each contributes an important piece in understanding development.

B. They disagree about certain aspects of development.

C. They look at development from different perspectives.

D. Many of their ideas are contradictory rather than complementary.

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Developmental Issues

 

94. _____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.

A. Behavioral

B. Social-cognitive

C. Evolutionary

D. Psychoanalytic

 

Page: 17

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

95. Dr. Berenstein holds the view that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. Dr. Berenstein can be described as a(n):

A. psychoanalytic theorist.

B. evolutionary theorist.

C. cognitive theorist.

D. behavioral theorist.

 

Page: 17

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

96. Based on his belief that patients who talked about their problems could be restored to psychological health, Freud developed a technique called:

A. psychogenesis.

B. psychoanalysis.

C. psychopathology.

D. psychodevelopmentalism.

 

Page: 17

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

97. Identify the correct sequence of the five stages of psychosexual development described in Freud’s theory of development.

A. Genital, oral, anal, phallic, and latency

B. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

C. Anal, genital, oral, phallic, and latency

D. Oral, phallic, anal, latency, and genital

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

98. According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by:

A. the way we resolve conflicts between home life and professional life.

B. the resolution of adult realities versus childhood fantasies.

C. the way we maintain a balance between family and friends.

D. the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

99. Most contemporary psychoanalytic theorists believe that Sigmund Freud:

A. proposed a theory that has stood the test of time and needs no revisions.

B. overemphasized sexual instincts.

C. overemphasized cultural experiences as determinants of an individual’s development.

D. underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining development.

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

100. The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as a _____ theory of development.

A. psychobiological

B. psychogenic

C. psychosocial

D. psychoanatomical

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

101. One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that:

A. Freud believed Erikson underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in development.

B. Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 20.

C. Erikson emphasized the importance of both early and later experiences.

D. Freud believed Erikson overemphasized the role of sexuality in the life-span development of an individual.

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

102. Which of the following is NOT true of Erikson’s theory?

A. It characterized development in eight stages.

B. It emphasized an individual’s desire to affiliate with other people.

C. It describes change across the life span.

D. It characterizes development as a series of catastrophic crises.

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

103. The first stage in Erikson’s theory is:

A. autonomy versus shame and doubt.

B. initiative versus guilt.

C. generativity versus stagnation.

D. trust versus mistrust.

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

104. Kelly responds to her infant son’s needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired she puts him down for a nap, and when he is hungry she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of:

A. autonomy.

B. initiative.

C. trust.

D. integrity.

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

105. Two-year-old Julia is learning to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is “no.” This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson’s life-span stage of:

A. initiative versus guilt.

B. intimacy versus isolation.

C. autonomy versus shame and doubt.

D. trust versus mistrust.

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

106. McKenzie, age two, wants to do everything on her own. Her mother punishes her when she attempts to pour her own milk or tries to answer the phone. Erikson would say that McKenzie is likely to develop a sense of:

A. initiative.

B. autonomy.

C. stagnation.

D. shame and doubt.

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

107. Johnny is attempting to resolve the crisis of initiative versus guilt. According to Erik Erikson, he is most likely in:

A. preschool.

B. elementary school.

C. junior high school.

D. high school.

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

108. Erik Erikson’s developmental theory consists of _____ stages that last from the first year of life to _____.

A. seven; early adulthood

B. eight; late adulthood

C. six; adolescence

D. nine; death

 

Page: 18

APA LO: 1.1

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

109. Edwin was a neglected child in his infancy. Now, at 31 years of age, he is highly cynical about the world and feels that no one can be relied upon. Whenever he is in a relationship with a woman, he has tremendous feelings of suspicion toward his partner, and these feelings eventually lead to the breakup of the relationship. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, this is a good indication that Edwin did not successfully resolve the _____ stage of development, which in turn is causing him to experience _____ in his current developmental stage.

A. identity versus identity confusion; stagnation

B. trust versus mistrust; isolation

C. autonomy versus shame and doubt; confusion

D. trust versus mistrust; despair

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

110. The elementary school years where children need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills is when Erikson’s stage of _____ takes place.

A. intimacy versus isolation

B. integrity versus despair

C. autonomy versus shame and doubt

D. industry versus inferiority

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

111. Jessica, 16, is in the process of deciding what she wants to study in college. She wants to be an engineer one day and a painter the next day. Erik Erikson would say that Jessica is in the _____ stage of development.

A. intimacy versus isolation

B. identity versus identity confusion

C. initiative versus guilt

D. industry versus inferiority

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

112. During early adulthood, Erik Erikson’s developmental stage of _____ occurs.

A. intimacy versus isolation

B. integrity versus despair

C. initiative versus guilt

D. industry versus inferiority

 

Page: 18

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

113. Caitlin, age 25, has a good job as a financial analyst but she has few friends and has had no success in dating. She admits that being close to others is a problem for her. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, Caitlin is at a risk of reaching the state of:

A. stagnation.

B. guilt.

C. isolation.

D. shame and doubt.

 

Page: 19

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

114. The term “generativity” as described in Erikson’s seventh stage of development primarily reflects a concern for:

A. helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives.

B. forming healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another.

C. developing healthy ego boundaries.

D. feeling secure in one’s job.

 

Page: 19

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

115. The final stage of Erik Erikson’s developmental theory is:

A. generativity versus stagnation.

B. trust versus mistrust.

C. integrity versus despair.

D. intimacy versus isolation.

 

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

116. Roger looks back on his life and feels that he failed to reach his potential, squandered opportunities, and hurt a lot of people. At 82 years of age, he knows it is too late to make amends. Roger is slipping into:

A. stagnation.

B. identity confusion.

C. despair.

D. mistrust.

 

Page: 19

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

117. Dr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of _____ in understanding development.

A. conscious thoughts

B. repressed memories

C. biological processes

D. emotional processes

 

Page: 19

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Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

118. According to Piaget’s theory, two processes underlie children’s cognitive construction of the world:

A. assimilation and generalization.

B. adaptation and abstraction.

C. association and abstraction.

D. organization and adaptation.

 

Page: 19

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

119. Piaget’s stages are age related, distinct, and represent _____ changes.

A. unconscious

B. nonnormative

C. quantitative

D. qualitative

 

Page: 19

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

120. Amir is 18 months old, exploring the world through seeing, hearing, and moving around. According to Piaget, he is in which of the following stages of cognitive development?

A. Preoperational

B. Sensorimotor

C. Formal operational

D. Concrete operational

 

Page: 19

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

121. A child who has just begun to represent the world with words, images, and drawings is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

A. preoperational

B. sensorimotor

C. formal operational

D. concrete operational

 

Page: 19

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

122. Lynne, five, loves to draw and color. She represents the world with words and her drawings. According to Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Lynne is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

A. preoperational

B. sensorimotor

C. formal operational

D. concrete operational

 

Page: 19

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

123. Bob is four years old and now understands that his name represents him. He gets very upset when his sister calls him “Bob the blob.” Bob is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

A. preoperational

B. sensorimotor

C. formal operational

D. concrete operational

 

Page: 19

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Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

124. Hidalgo, eight, is very good at addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the complex algebraic problems that his 14-year-old sister does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Piaget’s stages of development?

A. Preoperational

B. Concrete operational

C. Formal operational

D. Conceptual operational

 

Page: 20

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

125. A child who can reason logically about specific or physical examples but is unable to think in abstract terms is currently in which of Piaget’s stages of development?

A. Preoperational

B. Concrete operational

C. Formal operational

D. Conceptual operational

 

Page: 20

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

126. Sandrine is now able to use abstract thought as well as logic; Piaget would argue that she is in the _____ stage of development.

A. preoperational

B. concrete operational

C. formal operational

D. conceptual operational

 

Page: 20

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

 

127. Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes how _____ guide(s) cognitive development.

A. culture and social interaction

B. biology

C. the unconscious mind

D. genes

 

Page: 21

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

 

128. Dr. Alondro is an information-processing psychologist, thus he is most likely to emphasize:

A. the influence of culture on development.

B. that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.

C. the influence of personality on thinking.

D. the role of more-skilled peers on learning.

 

Page: 21

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Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Information-Processing Theory

 

129. Siegler argues that the best way to understand how children learn is to observe them while they are learning, using the ____ to obtain detailed information about processing mechanisms as they are occurring moment to moment.

A. study of unconscious processes

B. microgenetic method

C. behavioral outcomes

D. quantitative survey method

 

Page: 21

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Information-Processing Theory

 

130. The microgenetic method focuses on:

A. the cognitive processes involved in how children acquire knowledge.

B. the emotional disturbances found in late adulthood.

C. the physical development of newborns.

D. the fertility problems many couples face.

 

Page: 21

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Information-Processing Theory

 

131. Behaviorism essentially holds that we can study scientifically only what can be:

A. found in unconscious motives.

B. found in stages.

C. directly observed and measured.

D. inferred and measured.

 

Page: 21

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

 

132. Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize:

A. unconscious motives.

B. discontinuity in behavior.

C. continuity in development.

D. that development occurs in stage-like fashion.

 

Page: 21

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

 

133. Dr. Nasrin believes that associating behavior with consequence can shape the probability of a behavior occurring. He is arguing that _____ conditioning is important for behavioral modification.

A. stimulus

B. operant

C. classical

D. cognitive

 

Page: 22

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Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

 

134. Nellie, three, bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. How could Skinner’s concept of operant conditioning be applied to address this behavior?

A. Explore experiences from Nellie’s early childhood and address them in therapy.

B. Test Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning.

C. Investigate her psychosocial environment and eliminate stressors.

D. Reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior.

 

Page: 22

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

 

135. B.F. Skinner was a behaviorist; as such he would argue that the most important things that shape development are:

A. thoughts and feelings.

B. unconscious motivations.

C. rewards and punishments.

D. culture and society.

 

Page: 22

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

 

136. Danny’s mother is even tempered, fair, and tactful. Seeing this, Danny, too, is growing up to be a polite, good-natured boy. This imitation or modeling of behavior mirrors the concept of _____ in Bandura’s social cognitive theory.

A. operant conditioning

B. observational learning

C. salient stimuli

D. classical conditioning

 

Page: 22

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Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

 

137. Bandura’s most recent model of learning and development includes three elements: behavior, environment, and:

A. person/cognition.

B. culture.

C. education level.

D. motivation.

 

Page: 22

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

 

138. In Bandura’s most recent model of learning and development, the part that refers to thinking, planning, and individuals’ belief that they can control their own experiences is:

A. person/cognition.

B. culture.

C. behavior.

D. environment.

 

Page: 22

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

 

139. Fernando believes that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. He is most likely taking a(n) _____ approach.

A. behavioral

B. ethological

C. social cognitive

D. psychoanalytic

 

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Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

140. The belief that infants attach to a caregiver through a biological mechanism similar to what Lorenz found with goslings reflects the _____ perspective of development.

A. ideological

B. clinical

C. ethological

D. theological

 

Page: 23

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

141. Konrad Lorenz performed research with goslings and found that many, upon hatching, identified him as their mother. He coined this form of attachment:

A. conditioning.

B. imprinting.

C. internalizing.

D. acclimatizing.

 

Page: 23

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Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

142. In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This period of time is called the:

A. receptive period.

B. sensitive period.

C. critical period.

D. bonding period.

 

Page: 23

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

143. While ethological theory stresses _____ factors, ecological theory emphasizes _____ factors.

A. biological; environmental

B. environmental; biological

C. social; sexual

D. sexual; social

 

Page: 23

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

144. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, a person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood constitute his or her:

A. microsystem.

B. mesosystem.

C. chronosystem.

D. macrosystem.

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

145. The _____ involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.

A. metasystem

B. mesosystem

C. chronosystem

D. macrosystem

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

146. Larry had a great time in school today, and when the fourth grader gets home from school he treats his sister much better than usual. This pattern is happening in the:

A. metasystem

B. mesosystem

C. chronosystem

D. macrosystem

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

147. Carol had a terrible day at work. When she gets home she realizes her frustration is spilling over to her family life, causing her daughter to cry. This pattern is happening in the:

A. metasystem

B. mesosystem

C. chronosystem

D. macrosystem

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

148. The _____ consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context.

A. microsystem

B. mesosystem

C. exosystem

D. macrosystem

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

149. Sarah is a wife and mother. She just received a promotion at work that requires her to travel more, and the absence from home has caused conflict with her husband. From her child’s point of view, this conflict is happening in the:

A. microsystem

B. mesosystem

C. exosystem

D. macrosystem

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

150. The _____ involves the culture in which individuals live.

A. chronosystem

B. mesosystem

C. ethnosystem

D. macrosystem

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

151. Which of Urie Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances?

A. Mesosystem

B. Chronosystem

C. Macrosystem

D. Exosystem

 

Page: 24

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

152. The belief that no single theory of development is adequate to explain the rich complexity of life-span development, while acknowledging that each has useful things to offer, reflects the _____ theoretical orientation.

A. eclectic

B. mixed

C. critical

D. ambivalent

 

Page: 25

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

 

153. Professor Vaugn believes that while individual theories are adequate to explain various elements of our physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development, no single theory is adequate to explain all facets of human development. Professor Vaugn believes in the ______ theoretical orientation.

A. eclectic

B. mixed

C. critical

D. ambivalent

 

Page: 25

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

 

154. Which theory BEST explains changes in cognitive development as children age?

A. Freud’s theory

B. Piaget’s theory

C. Erikson’s theory

D. Bandura’s theory

 

Page: 25

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

 

155. Which theory stresses the importance of the environment in all facets of development?

A. Psychoanalytic

B. Cognitive

C. Behavioral

D. Ethological

 

Page: 25

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

 

156. Which theory stresses the importance of biology and critical or sensitive periods in human development?

A. Psychoanalytic

B. Cognitive

C. Behavioral

D. Ethological

 

Page: 25

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

 

157. Observations, surveys, and experiments are all methods developmental researchers use to collect:

A. data.

B. disability.

C. sympathy.

D. hypotheses.

 

Page: 26

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

158. From the life-span development perspective, observations must be _____ to be effective.

A. systematic

B. spontaneous

C. conducted with computers

D. conducted in a laboratory

 

Page: 26

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

159. Which of the following is NOT one of the questions researchers using the observation technique must answer prior to conducting their research?

A. Whom are we observing?

B. Where will we be observing?

C. How will the observations be made and recorded?

D. Is this a nature or nurture issue?

 

Page: 26

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

160. The ability to control certain factors when observing behavior, particularly those that determine behavior but are not the focus of the inquiry, is reflective of:

A. laboratory research.

B. naturalistic observation.

C. case studies.

D. surveys.

 

Page: 26

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

161. Dr. Xong, a developmental researcher, is interested in studying the influence of video games on the moral development of children. If Dr. Xong wants to control the type of game the children are exposed to and how long the children play the game, he should use:

A. naturalistic observation.

B. laboratory research.

C. a case study.

D. an interview.

 

Page: 26

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

162. Which of the following is NOT a possible drawback of laboratory research?

A. It is impossible to conduct research without the participants knowing they are being studied.

B. The laboratory is a natural setting and tends to put participants at ease.

C. People who are willing to come to a university laboratory may not fairly represent groups from diverse cultural backgrounds.

D. People who are unfamiliar with university settings may be intimidated by the laboratory setting.

 

Page: 26

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

163. Observing behavior in real-world settings and making no effort to manipulate or control the situation is called ______ observation.

A. laboratory

B. naturalistic

C. serious

D. correlational

 

Page: 26

APA LO: 1.1

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

164. Professor Castillo is studying the aggression of preschool children during recess. He has several observers recording the children’s behavior, but none of them are allowed to interfere with the children at play; they simply record what they see. Professor Castillo is using:

A. naturalistic observation.

B. laboratory research.

C. interviews.

D. surveys.

 

Page: 26

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

165. Flevy is conducting an extensive market study and has hired a big group of college students to hand out a standard set of questions to shoppers at malls and supermarkets and to seek their responses. Which of the following methods of data collection is Flevy using?

A. Laboratory research

B. Survey

C. Naturalistic observation

D. Physiological measures

 

Page: 27

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

166. Cynthia is conducting a survey on the prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in her city. What could be a problem that Cynthia could encounter while using this method of data collection?

A. The assumption that a person’s behavior is consistent and stable

B. The inability to sample a large number of people

C. That surveys have to be conducted only in person

D. That some participants may not tell the truth and instead give socially acceptable answers

 

Page: 27

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

167. Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests?

A. They allow a person’s performance to be compared with that of other individuals.

B. They assume a person’s behavior is consistent and stable.

C. They provide information about individual differences among people.

D. They are difficult to design.

 

Page: 27

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

168. Dr. Casey wants to study the ways that levels of happiness change for college students throughout the day. Dr. Casey should avoid using:

A. naturalistic observation.

B. standardized tests.

C. surveys.

D. interviews.

 

Page: 27

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

169. The research method that involves an in-depth look at a single individual is a(n):

A. questionnaire.

B. case study.

C. interview protocol.

D. naturalistic observation.

 

Page: 27

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

170. By using physiological measures, researchers have found that cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, is linked to:

A. intelligence.

B. weight gain.

C. stress level.

D. muscle development.

 

Page: 28

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

171. Advancements in methods used to assess physiological measures are now allowing scientists to examine ______ in studies of biological influences on development.

A. height

B. weight

C. genes

D. muscles

 

Page: 28

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

172. Dr. Sanchez provided pet therapy dogs on a college campus and then observed if, and if so how long, students interacted with the dogs. Dr. Sanchez is conducting _____ research.

A. descriptive

B. correlational

C. collaborative

D. discrete

 

Page: 28

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Correlational Research

 

173. In _____ research, the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics.

A. descriptive

B. correlational

C. collaborative

D. discrete

 

Page: 28

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Correlational Research

 

174. Dr. Jackson’s research has found that the correlation between IQ and head circumference is +.10. From this information, we can conclude that:

A. people with large heads have a higher IQ than people with smaller heads.

B. there is a weak relationship between head size and IQ.

C. people with small heads tend to have a higher IQ than people with large heads.

D. head circumference is an important predictor of IQ.

 

Page: 29

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Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Correlational Research

 

175. Which of the following correlations is the strongest?

A. –.65

B. +.46

C. +.70

D. –.77

 

Page: 29

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Correlational Research

 

176. In terms of interpreting correlational research, it is important to remember that correlation does not mean the same as:

A. trend.

B. relationship.

C. association.

D. causation.

 

Page: 29

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Correlational Research

 

177. A(n) _____ is a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.

A. case study

B. survey

C. experiment

D. correlational

 

Page: 29

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Experimental Research

 

178. A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for eight weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is:

A. the number of minutes on the treadmill.

B. the exercise program (high versus low).

C. the number of elderly patients.

D. the eight-week duration of the exercise program.

 

Page: 30

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Experimental Research

 

179. In an experimental study, the _____ group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.

A. control

B. experimental

C. dependent

D. independent

 

Page: 30

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Experimental Research

 

180. The cross-sectional approach to developmental research compares individuals of different ages:

A. every year.

B. every 10 years

C. at one time.

D. across their lifetimes.

 

Page: 30

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cross-Sectional Approach

 

181. Dr. McLean has designed a study to test the cognitive skills of people in their thirties, fifties, and seventies where data are collected over the course of a day through a series of tests. What type of research approach is Dr. McLean using?

A. Longitudinal

B. Cohort

C. Latitudinal

D. Cross sectional

 

Page: 30

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cross-Sectional Approach

 

182. The longitudinal method of research consists of studying:

A. the same individuals over a long period of time.

B. individuals of different ages.

C. individuals from around the globe.

D. individuals born in the same year.

 

Page: 31

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cross-Sectional Approach

 

183. Dr. Hansen plans to survey her research participants every two years for as many years as she can, charting how their parenting styles changes with age. She is using a _____ technique.

A. dual-sectional

B. cross-sectional

C. sectional

D. longitudinal

 

Page: 31

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cross-Sectional Approach

 

184. Cohort effects are due to all of the following EXCEPT:

A. year of birth.

B. era the individual is associated with.

C. generation the individual is associated with.

D. actual age of the individual.

 

Page: 31

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cohort Effects

 

185. A _____ is a group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences.

A. cohort

B. collection

C. committee

D. council

 

Page: 31

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cohort Effects

 

186. According to the APA guidelines, all participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop. This guideline addresses which of the following issues?

A. Deception

B. Debriefing

C. Informed consent

D. Confidentiality

 

Page: 32

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Ethical Research

 

187. According to the APA guidelines, after the study has been completed, participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used. This is known as:

A. debriefing.

B. informed consent.

C. confidentiality.

D. deception.

 

Page: 33

APA LO: 1.1

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Ethical Research

 

188. This refers to the average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live.

Life expectancy

 

Page: 3

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

189. This refers to the capacity for change.

Plasticity

 

Page: 5

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

190. This refers to a range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language.

Ethnicity

 

Page: 8

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Contemporary Concerns

 

191. This is the number of years that have elapsed since birth.

Chronological age

 

Page: 13

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

192. This is a way of conceptualizing age where age is characterized by an individual’s connectedness with others, roles, and quality of relationships.

Social age

 

Page: 13

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

193. This is a way of conceptualizing age where age is characterized by physical health and the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs.

Biological age

 

Page: 13

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

194. This is the developmental issue or debate concerning whether development is influenced by biology or environment.

Nature-nurture issue

 

Page: 15

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Nature and Nurture

 

195. These theories describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion.

Psychoanalytic theories

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

196. This theorist proposed that psychosexual development occurred in five stages: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latent stage, and genital stage.

Sigmund Freud

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

197. This theorist proposed eight psychosocial stages of development.

Erik Erikson

 

Page: 18

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

 

198. This theorist believed that children’s social interaction with more-skilled adults and peers is indispensable to their cognitive development.

Lev Vygotsky

 

Page: 21

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

 

199. Xavier believes that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured. He argues that affective and cognitive explanations are circular. Which theoretical orientation is most akin to his views?

Behavioral orientation

 

Page: 21

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

 

200. This theorist developed the theory of operant conditioning.

B. F. Skinner

 

Page: 22

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

 

201. Riley argues that behavior is strongly influenced by biology; it is tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods. What theoretical orientation does Riley most likely take?

Ethology

 

Page: 23

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

202. This is a method of gathering data by means of observing behaviors in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation.

Naturalistic observation

 

Page: 26

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Observation

 

203. This test is given with uniform procedures for administration and scoring.

Standardized test

 

Page: 27

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Research Methods

 

204. This is a number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degrees of association between two variables.

Correlation coefficient

 

Page: 29

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Correlational Research

 

205. These effects are due to a subject’s time of birth or generation, but not age.

Cohort effects

 

Page: 31

APA LO: 1.1

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cohort Effects

 

206. Carstensen provided examples of areas where we are challenged to transform a world constructed mainly for young people into a world that is more compatible and supportive for the increasing number of people living to 100 and older. Give one of her examples.

 

As areas of challenge to transform the world into one compatible and supportive for older adults, Carstensen lists parks, transportation systems, staircases, hospitals, housing communities, educational systems, and the conception of work.

 

Page: 4

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

207. Baltes and his colleagues assert that a life-span perspective on development includes growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss. How do those three characteristics shift with age?

 

With age we shift to a focus on maintenance and regulation of loss and move away from growth.

 

Page: 4

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

 

208. In addition to chronological age, list and briefly describe the three other ways that “age” has been conceptualized.

 

Biological age is a person’s age in terms of biological health and is determined by knowing the functional capacities of a person’s vital organs. Psychological age refers to an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with others of the same chronological age. Social age refers to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt.

 

Page: 13

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

209. In the study of aging and happiness, what is the positivity effect?

 

The positivity effect is the finding that the hedonic aspects (happiness and positive affect) take an upward trajectory from early adulthood through late adulthood.

 

Page: 14

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.

Topic: Periods of Development

 

210. Define theory and hypothesis. Illustrate your answer with an example.

 

A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions. A hypothesis is a specific assumption and prediction that can be tested and determined for accuracy. Hypotheses are formulated in order to test the assumptions of a theory. Results from research based on these hypotheses may, in turn, be used to revise the theory.

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Scientific Method

 

211. List Freud’s psychosexual stages and explain how adult personality is determined as a result of these stages.

 

Freud believed that we go through five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to Freud, our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality.

 

Page: 17

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory

 

212. Explain why Vygotsky would encourage small classes and group work to better facilitate learning in school.

 

Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory emphasizes social interaction and learning from more-skilled adults and peers. Small classes would allow more interaction with the teacher and group work would facilitate peer interaction.

 

Page: 21

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

 

213. Briefly describe the ethological perspective. Provide an example that involves a critical period to bolster this perspective’s argument.

 

Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. These are specific time frames during which, according to ethologists, the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long-lasting influence on individuals. Lorenz coined the term “imprinting” to describe the process of the rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen. In Lorenz’s view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This point in time is called a critical period.

 

Page: 23

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

214. List and briefly describe Urie Bronfenbrenner’s five environmental systems.

 

Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. The microsystem is the setting in which an individual lives. The mesosystem involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. The exosystem consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate environment. The macrosystem involves the culture in which individuals live. The chronosystem consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions as well as sociohistorical circumstances.

 

Page: 24

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Ethological Theory

 

215. Explain eclectic theoretical orientation. What is the merit in using such an orientation?

 

An eclectic theoretical orientation is one that does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features. In this way, you can view the study of development as it actually exists—with different theorists making different assumptions, stressing different empirical problems, and using different strategies to discover information.

 

Page: 25

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.

Topic: Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

 

216. Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using surveys as a way to collect data.

 

Surveys can be used to study a wide range of topics and can collect data from a large number of people. Surveys can be conducted in person, over the telephone, or on the Internet. A disadvantage to survey research is that people sometimes respond in ways that they think is socially acceptable rather than saying what they honestly think and believe.

 

Page: 27

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Survey and Interview

 

217. If, as a developmental researcher, you wished to study in-depth the life and mind of Ted Kaczynski—the notorious Unabomber—who is featured at the beginning of the text, which method of data collection would you adopt? Why?

 

A case study would best serve the purpose of studying Ted Kaczynski as the subject of research. A case study is an in-depth look at a single individual. It is performed mainly by mental health professionals when, for either practical or ethical reasons, the unique aspects of an individual’s life cannot be duplicated and tested in other individuals—as is the scenario for Ted Kaczynski. A case study provides information about the person’s experiences and allows the researcher to focus on any aspect of the subject’s life that helps the researcher to understand the person’s mind, behavior, or other attributes.

 

Page: 27

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Case Study

 

218. Briefly explain the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment. Describe the relationship between them.

 

Experiments include two types of changeable factors, or variables: independent and dependent. An independent variable is a manipulated, influential, experimental factor. It is a potential cause. The label “independent” is used because this variable can be manipulated independently of other factors to determine its effect. An experiment may include one independent variable or several of them. A dependent variable is a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable. As researchers manipulate the independent variable, they measure the dependent variable for any resulting effect.

 

Page: 30

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Independent and Dependent Variables

 

219. Describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches to developmental research, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of both.

 

The cross-sectional approach is a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages. Data are usually collected over a short period of time. The longitudinal approach is a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more. In a cross-sectional study, the researcher does not have to wait for the individuals to grow up or become older. However, it gives no information about how individuals change or about the stability of their characteristics, and can obscure the increases and decreases of development. Longitudinal studies address these concerns, but are expensive and time consuming and carry the risk of participants dropping out midway through the research.

 

Page: 30

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.

Topic: Cross-Sectional Approach

 

Category                                                                                                                                                                             # of Questions

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation                                                                                                                                                                187

APA LO: 1.1                                                                                                                                                                                                  75

APA LO: 1.2                                                                                                                                                                                                  72

APA LO: 1.3                                                                                                                                                                                                  72

Bloom's Taxonomy: Apply                                                                                                                                                                             71

Bloom's Taxonomy: Remember                                                                                                                                                                      79

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understand                                                                                                                                                                     68

Difficulty Level: Easy                                                                                                                                                                                     75

Difficulty Level: Hard                                                                                                                                                                                     72

Difficulty Level: Medium                                                                                                                                                                                72

Learning Objective: 1.1: Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development.                                                             43

Learning Objective: 1.2: Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development.                                                            57

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the main theories of human development.                                                                                                 80

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.                                                                                 39

Topic: Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory                                                                                                                                                      3

Topic: Biological Processes                                                                                                                                                                            2

Topic: Case Study                                                                                                                                                                                           1

Topic: Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective                                                                                                                                              34

Topic: Cognitive Processes                                                                                                                                                                             2

Topic: Cohort Effects                                                                                                                                                                                      3

Topic: Contemporary Concerns                                                                                                                                                                      11

Topic: Continuity and Discontinuity                                                                                                                                                               2

Topic: Correlational Research                                                                                                                                                                         6

Topic: Cross-Sectional Approach                                                                                                                                                                   5

Topic: Developmental Issues                                                                                                                                                                          3

Topic: Eclectic Theoretical Orientation                                                                                                                                                            6

Topic: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory                                                                                                                                                            18

Topic: Ethical Research                                                                                                                                                                                   2

Topic: Ethological Theory                                                                                                                                                                               16

Topic: Experimental Research                                                                                                                                                                         3

Topic: Independent and Dependent Variables                                                                                                                                                 1

Topic: Information-Processing Theory                                                                                                                                                           3

Topic: Nature and Nurture                                                                                                                                                                              4

Topic: Observation                                                                                                                                                                                          8

Topic: Periods of Development                                                                                                                                                                       38

Topic: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory                                                                                                                                              10

Topic: Psychoanalytic Theory                                                                                                                                                                         9

Topic: Research Methods                                                                                                                                                                                9

Topic: Scientific Method                                                                                                                                                                                 4

Topic: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning                                                                                                                                                          7

Topic: Socioemotional Processes                                                                                                                                                                    3

Topic: Stability and Change                                                                                                                                                                            2

Topic: Survey and Interview                                                                                                                                                                           1

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory                                                                                                                                        3