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Test Bank For Essentials of Nursing Leadership & Management 3rd Edition by Kelly

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Test Bank For Essentials of Nursing Leadership & Management 3rd Edition by Kelly

Test Bank For Essentials of Nursing Leadership & Management 3rd Edition by Kelly

Chapter 3: Nursing Today

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The first Nightingale School for Nurses was founded when?
a. 1825 c. 1885
b. 1860 d. 1910

 

 

ANS:  B

The first Nightingale Training School for Nurses was opened in 1860 at St. Thomas’s Hospital in London, England. This school has also been referred to as the first Nightingale School of Nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Remembering        TOP:   Evolution of Nursing

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered to be a nurse-sensitive patient outcome?
a. deep vein thrombosis c. shock
b. pneumonia d. hip fractures

 

 

ANS:  D

Nurse-sensitive patient outcomes are those that can be impacted directly and indirectly by nursing practice. Some of these nurse-sensitive outcomes are deep vein thrombosis, pneumonia, shock, cardiac arrest, and “failure to rescue” (Needleman, Buerhaus, Mattke, Stewart, & Zelevinsky, 2002).

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Nurse-Sensitive Patient Outcomes

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered to be an identified professional value characteristic of a professional?
a. caring c. truth
b. equality d. political awareness

 

 

ANS:  D

A number of characteristics have been identified and associated with professionals. Some characteristics specifically assigned as professional values include caring, equality, truthfulness, ethics, and nonjudgmental attitude. Professional characteristics concerned with professional behaviors and attributes include: political awareness, self-discipline, time-management skills, appearance, initiative, and effective communication.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Characteristics of a Profession

 

  1. A number of resources are available for nurses regarding evidence-based care. Which of the following resources is not a journal source for these practices?
a. Centre for Evidence-Based Nursing
b. Health Affairs
c. Hasting Report
d. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing

 

 

ANS:  A

Today’s nurses have access to a large variety of resources on evidence-based practice. Some of these that are journal-based include Health Affairs, Hasting Report, Advances in Nursing Science, and Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing. Some resources that are not journals, but are Internet or Web-based, include Centre for Evidence-Based Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau, Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health, and Cochrane Collaboration.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Evidence-Based Practice

 

  1. Which of the following does not provide health care ratings or scoring of hospital performance?
a. Health Grades
b. Morningstar
c. Leapfrog Hospital Quality and Safety
d. Department of Health and Human Services’ Hospital Compare site

 

 

ANS:  B

Several groups and agencies report on health care and hospital quality and performance. Some of these groups include Health Grades, Leapfrog Hospital Quality and Safety, Thomson Reuters, the Department of Health and Human Services’ Hospital Compare site, and U.S. News and World Report. Morningstar is a financial investment-based publication.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Health Care Ratings

 

  1. The development, provision, and evaluation of multidisciplinary health care services to population groups experiencing increased health risks or disparities, and performed in conjunction with health care consumers and the community as a means of improving the health of the community is called:
a. population-focused nursing practice c. population-based health care practice
b. population-based nursing practice d. population-based care

 

 

ANS:  C

Population-based health care practice is the development, provision and evaluation of multidisciplinary health care services to population groups experiencing increased health risks or disparities. It is performed in conjunction with health care consumers and the community in order to improve the health of the community and its diverse groups. Population-focused nursing practice is defined by nursing activities that concern all people and reflects responsibility to and for the people. Population-based nursing practice is defined as the practice of nursing in which the primary concern of care is to improve the health status of vulnerable or at-risk population groups within a community by employing health promotion and disease prevention across the health continuum. Population-based care requires active partnership of both providers and recipients of care.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Population-Based Health Care

 

  1. Vulnerable populations are groups of people that are subgroups of a community with certain characteristics. Which of the following is not necessarily one of the criteria for vulnerable population groups?
a. powerless c. enfranchised
b. marginalized d. experiencing health disparities

 

 

ANS:  C

Vulnerable population groups are subgroups of communities whose common experiences meet certain criteria which categorize them as being vulnerable. These criteria include being powerless, marginalized, disenfranchised (not enfranchised), and experiencing health disparities.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Population-Based Health Care

 

  1. Variables that increase or decrease the probability of illness or death and that can be modified are called:
a. health determinants c. vulnerable population groups
b. underserved d. health risk factors

 

 

ANS:  D

Health risk factors are variables that increase or decrease the probability of illness or death. Health risk factors may be modifiable. Health determinants are variables that include biological, psychological, environmental, and health system factors that may cause changes in the health status of individuals, families, groups, communities, or populations. Vulnerable population groups are subgroups of a community who are powerless, marginalized, or disenfranchised and are experiencing health disparities. The underserved are those people who have not received adequate medical care services.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Population-Based Health Care

 

  1. One goal of population-based health care is to:
a. maintain access to health care services
b. maintain quality of health care services
c. reduce health care disparities
d. increase health care delivery costs

 

 

ANS:  C

The goals of population-based health care include: 1) reduction of health disparities among different population groups, 2) improvement of access to health care services, 3) improvement of quality of health care services, and 4) reduction of health care delivery costs.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Population-Based Health Care

 

  1. At least 50% of the Joint Commission’s accreditation standards for hospitals and other health care facilities were written to align with whose conditions for participation?
a. HIPAA c. Medicare
b. IOM d. Leapfrog

 

 

ANS:  C

When the Joint Commission designed their accreditation standards for hospitals, they aligned as many as 50% of these standards with criteria from Medicare’s conditions for participation for hospitals and other health care facilities. These criteria set forth by Medicare are requirements for reimbursement for these health care facilities.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Accreditation

 

  1. Which of the following chapters from the Joint Commission’s hospital accreditation manual does not fall under the category of patient-focused functions?
a. provision of care, treatment, and services
b. medication management
c. nursing services
d. ethics, rights, and responsibilities

 

 

ANS:  C

The Joint Commission’s standards for hospital accreditation have identified a number of different chapters that can be categorized into two groups: patient-focused functions and organization-focused functions. The identified patient-focused functions are: 1) provision of care, treatment, and services; 2) medication management, 3) ethics, rights, and responsibilities, and 4) surveillance, prevention, and control of infections. Organization-focused functions are: 1) nursing services, 2) medical staff, 3) management of information, 4) management of human resources, 5) management of the environment of care, 6) leadership, and 7) improving organization performance.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Accreditation

 

  1. Which nursing theorist was responsible for Human Becoming theory?
a. Nightingale c. Neuman
b. Parse d. Peplau

 

 

ANS:  B

Rosemarie Rizzo Parse is the theorist responsible for Human Becoming theory. The key concepts of this theory are centered on three ideas: 1) structuring (cocreating reality through language of valuing and imaging), 2) cocreating (rhythmical patterns of relating), and 3) cotranscending (unique ways of originating the process of transforming). Florence Nightingale was responsible for Environmental theory (1859). Betty Neuman was responsible for Systems Model (1972/1995), and Hildegard Peplau was responsible for Interpersonal Process theory (1952).

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Selected Nursing Theorists and Their Model

 

  1. Public Law 93-360 on Collective Bargaining identified certain characteristics that relate to professions. Which of the following is one of these characteristics?
a. varied work environments c. work has social value
b. autonomous practice d. existence of a code of ethics

 

 

ANS:  A

A number of different groups and entities have identified characteristics of what constitutes a profession. Some of these characteristics are, according to Public Law 93-360 on Collective Bargaining: varied work environments, predominately intellectual work, requires discretion and judgment, and requires advanced instruction and study. Bixler and Bixler (1959) included autonomous practice, growing body of knowledge, education takes place in higher education institutions, and service above personal gain. Pavalko (1971) noted the following additions to the characteristics of a profession: work has social value, existence of a code of ethics, group identity and subculture, and autonomy.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Profession of Nursing

 

  1. Under the National Prevention Strategy there are seven priority areas. Under the area of injury- and violence-free living what is one of the targeted areas?
a. mandated car seat laws c. reporting laws for abuse
b. School-based physical education d. preventing drug abuse

 

 

ANS:  A

The Community Preventive Services has identified seven priority areas as strategy for prevention nationwide. Under the area of injury- and violence-free living one targeted area is mandated laws for car seats for children. The other priority areas are tobacco-free living, preventing drug abuse, healthy eating, active living, reproductive and sexual health, and mental and emotional well-being.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Applying

TOP:   Population-Based Health Care

 

  1. One example of a population-based public health intervention program is the social marketing: college campus initiative. This program targeted:
a. offering condoms at health centers
b. increased use of helmets for campus bikers
c. weight loss programs
d. preventative health screening

 

 

ANS:  B

According to Ludwig, Bucholz, and Clarke (2005), an example of a population-based public health intervention defined under social marketing is a “grateful head” theme used to increase helmet use on a college campus. This example is defined under the individual/family level of practice. The other choices are not listed as examples of public health intervention programs.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Population-Based Public Health Intervention Programs

 

  1. One characteristic of a profession is that it has a peer review of its practice. This is attributed to:
a. Flexner c. Manthey
b. Pavalko d. Public Law 93-360

 

 

ANS:  C

Manthey (2002) described the characteristics of a profession as those that have a peer review of practice, there is an identification with a professional organization as a standard setter, there is autonomy of decision making, and there is an identifiable body of knowledge that can be attributed via formal education.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Analyzing

TOP:   Characteristics of a Profession

 

  1. The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-based Practice Model is based on the initials PET. These initials stand for:
a. problem, evidence, transmission
b. practice question, evidence, transmission
c. problem, evidence, translation
d. practice question, evidence, transition

 

 

ANS:  D

PET in the Johns Hopkins Evidence-based Practice Model stands for the three steps in the process: practice question, evidence, and translation. The model progresses through 18 steps from the asking of the question needing an answer to the dissemination of the knowledge when the answer is identified.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Applying

TOP:   Evidence-Based Practice Model

 

  1. Outcomes provide evidence about benefits, risks, and results of treatments so individuals can:
a. make informed decisions c. seek specialty care
b. seek high quality care d. find the best hospital

 

 

ANS:  A

Evidence-based practice uses evidence-based resources to guide the development of appropriate strategies to deliver quality, cost-effective care. Outcomes provide evidence so individuals can make informed decisions and choices to improve their quality of life.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Evidence-Based Practice

 

  1. Members of a profession continually evaluate the quality of the service they provide to:
a. adapt to trends c. protect the public
b. provide group identity d. standardize education

 

 

ANS:  C

General characteristics of a profession include (1)an occupation which involves a unique practice that carries individual responsibility and is based on theoretical knowledge, (2) The privilege to practice is granted only after the individual has completed a standardized program of highly specialized education, (3) the body of specialized knowledge is continually developed and evaluated through research, and (4) the members continually evaluate the quality of service provided in order to protect the individual members and the public. Professions may provide a group identity and help standardize education, but these are not the reasons professions evaluate the quality of service they provide.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Analyzing              TOP:   Profession of Nursing

 

  1. Professional nursing behaviors and attributes include all of the following except:
a. time management skills c. caring
b. self-evaluation d. self-discipline

 

 

ANS:  C

Professional nursing behaviors include appearance, time management skills, self-discipline, maintenance of licensure/certification, political awareness, and self-evaluation among other attributes. Caring is one of the professional values of nursing.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Characteristics of a Profession

 

  1. Sentinel events have been found to be linked to:
a. poor quality care c. preventable errors
b. ineffective team communication d. autonomy of health professionals

 

 

ANS:  B

Sentinel events, medical errors, and patient care quality have been linked to ineffective team communication in the hospital. Outside the hospital there is an increased concern that communication and lack of coordination of care result in preventable readmissions to the hospital.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   The Interdisciplinary Team

 

  1. Asking the question, did our services meet the greatest unmet health needs of the community? when evaluating a population-based nursing program determines:
a. quality c. cost
b. access d. equity

 

 

ANS:  A

Evaluating programs of population-based nursing practice involves evaluating quality, access, cost, and equity. When evaluating quality, some questions to ask are as follows: Did our services meet the greatest unmet health needs of the community? Did their health status improve? Were their health risks reduced?

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Applying

TOP:   Program Evaluation of Population-Based Nursing Practice

 

  1. One external force that influences health care is financial incentives that reward superior performance. An implication for management in this area would be:
a. an increased diverse workforce c. increased disease prevention
b. increased demand for primary care d. redesign of patient delivery

 

 

ANS:  D

Management implications that occur  from the external force of financial incentives that reward superior performance include the need for increased efficiency, productivity and quality, the redesign of patient care delivery and the development of strategic alliances that add value. An increased diverse workforce comes under the external force of an increased ethnic and cultural diversity of the population. Increased demand for primary care comes under the force of the aging population and associated increase in chronic illness.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Analyzing

TOP:   Forces Influencing Health Care Delivery and Their Implications for Nursing Management

 

  1. The National Prevention Strategy includes all of the following except:
a. healthy and safe communities c. smoking cessation programs
b. elimination of health disparities d. community preventative services

 

 

ANS:  C

The purpose of the National Prevention Strategy is to increase the number of Americans who are healthy at every stage of life. The four facets of this strategy include healthy and safe community environments, to empower people, to eliminate health disparities, and to provide clinical and community preventative services.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Population-Based Health Care

 

  1. Which nursing theorist is responsible for the theory of self-care deficit?
a. Rogers c. Roy
b. Orem d. Orlando

 

 

ANS:  B

Orem is responsible for the self-care deficit theory. Rogers is responsible for the science of unitary beings. Roy is responsible for the adaptation model. Orlando is responsible for the nursing process theory.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Nursing Theorists

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which of the following are correct regarding criteria that constitute a profession? Select all that apply.
a. the body of specialized knowledge is continually developed and evaluated through research
b. members are self-organizing and collectively assume responsibilities of establishing standards for education in practice
c. the privilege to practice is granted only after the individual has completed a standardized program of specified education and has demonstrated the ability to meet the standards of practice
d. professional status is achieved when an occupation involves a unique practice and its members declare it one

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C

While there are different views and opinions regarding what constitutes an occupation and a profession, there are a number of elements that are in general agreement concerning professions. Some of these include 1) the body of specialized knowledge is continually developed and evaluated through research, 2) members are self-organizing and collectively assume responsibilities of establishing standards for education in practice, 3) the privilege to practice is granted only after the individual has completed a standardized program of specified education and has demonstrated the ability to meet the standards of practice, and 4) professional status is achieved when an occupation involves a unique practice that carries with it individual responsibility and is based on theoretical knowledge (not is declared one when its members declare it to be one).

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding       TOP:   Profession of Nursing

 

  1. According to Pavlko, which of the following are characteristics of a profession? Select all that apply.
a. work has social value c. autonomy of decision making
b. service to the public d. growing body of knowledge

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D

According to Flexnor, some of the characteristics of a profession are there is a service to the public, there is autonomy, there is a commitment to the profession, work has social value, and there is the existence of a code of ethics. Autonomy of decision making is attributed to Manthey.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:   Characteristics of a Profession

 

  1. Professional values of nursing include which of the following? Select all that apply.
a. caring c. self-evaluation
b. justice d. human dignity

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D

The professional values of nursing include caring, altruism, equality, freedom, justice, truth, ethics, human dignity, and nonjudgmental. Self-evaluation is one of the professional behaviors and attributes.

 

PTS:   1                    OBJ:   Cognitive Level: Understanding

TOP:    Characteristics of a Profes