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Test Bank for Human Anatomy & Physiology – 10th Edition by Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn

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Test Bank for Human Anatomy & Physiology – 10th Edition by Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn

Test Bank for Human Anatomy & Physiology – 10th Edition by Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn

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What student Can Expect From A Test Bank?

A test bank will include the following questions:

  1. True/False
  2. Multiple Choice Questions
  3. Matching Questions
  4. Fill In The Blanks
  5. Essay Questions
  6. Short  Questions

 

Description

Human Anatomy & Physiology, 10e, (Marieb)

Chapter 5   The Integumentary System

 

5.1   Matching Questions

 

 

Figure 5.1

 

Using Figure 5.1, match the following:

  1. A) A
  2. B) E
  3. C) C
  4. D) D
  5. E) B

 

1) Site of the dermal ridges that produce epidermal ridges on the epidermal surfaces of the fingers.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

2) Responsible for shock absorption and located in the hypodermis.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

3) Pulls the hair follicle into an upright position.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

4) Sudoriferous gland.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

5) Dense irregularly arranged, fibrous connective tissue.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

6) Region that thickens markedly when one gains weight.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

7) Where capillary loops are found.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

Answers: 1) B 2) E 3) A 4) C 5) D 6) E 7) B

 

Match the following:

  1. A) Keratinocytes
  2. B) Keratin
  3. C) Cornified keratinocytes
  4. D) Dendritic cells
  5. E) Merkel disc

 

8) The most abundant cells of the epidermis.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

9) The protein found in the epidermis that is responsible for toughening the skin.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

10) Cells plus a disc-like sensory nerve ending that functions as a sensory receptor for touch.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

11) Skin macrophages that help activate the immune system.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

12) Cell remnants of the stratum corneum.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

Answers: 8) A 9) B 10) E 11) D 12) C

 

Match the following:

  1. A) Stratum corneum
  2. B) Stratum basale
  3. C) Sudoriferous glands
  4. D) Vellus

 

13) The layer of the epidermis where the cells are considered protective but nonviable.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

14) The glands that serve an important function in thermoregulation.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

15) The layer that contains the mitotic viable cells of the epidermis.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

16) Hair that lacks pigment and is often called “immature hair.”

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

Answers: 13) A 14) C 15) B 16) D

 

Match the following:

  1. A) Addison’s disease
  2. B) Jaundice
  3. C) Pallor
  4. D) Erythema
  5. E) Cyanosis

 

17) May indicate embarrassment, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy.

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

18) May indicate fear, anger, anemia, or low blood pressure.

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

19) Usually indicates a liver disorder.

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

20) Appearance of a permanent tan; bronzing.

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

21) A bluish color in light-skinned individuals.

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

Answers: 17) D 18) C 19) B 20) A 21) E

 

Figure 5.2

 

Using Figure 5.2, match the following:

  1. A) A
  2. B) B
  3. C) C
  4. D) D

 

22) Hypodermis.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

23) Epidermis.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

24) Reticular layer of the dermis.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

25) Papillary layer of the dermis.

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

Answers: 22) D 23) A 24) C 25) B

 

5.2   True/False Questions

 

1) The apocrine sweat glands are not the primary gland involved in thermoregulation.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.9

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

2) The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

3) The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

4) Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. and the burn is quite painful. Joe’s burn would best be described as a third-degree burn.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 1.6

Learning Outcome: 5.12

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

 

5) The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 5.6

Learning Outcome: 5.7

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

6) During the regressive phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

7) The skin cancer most likely to metastasize is cancer of the melanocytes.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 1.6, 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.11

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

8) The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

9) The dermis contains blood vessels and nerve fibers while the epidermis does not.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.2, 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

 

10) For a doctor, simply looking at a patient’s skin can help in making a diagnosis.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 1.6, 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.5

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

11) When an individual is exposed to extremely cold air the dermal blood vessels will dilate so that more blood will be brought closer to the outside surface of the skin.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 1.6, 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

12) Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 1.6, 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

13) Cells in the stratum corneum undergo mitosis to keep the layer thick and protective.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 1.6, 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

14) The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

 

15) When a patient is said to have “third-degree burns,” this indicates that the patient has burns that cover approximately one-third or more of the body.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 1.6, 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.12

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

16) Thick skin has a more extensive dermal layer than thin skin.

Answer: FALSE

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

17) The action of the arrector pili muscle is very similar in humans as it is in other mammals but its beneficial functions differ.

Answer: TRUE

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.5

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS3, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

1.3   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.

  1. A) Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum.
  2. B) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
  3. C) Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant.
  4. D) Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.

Answer: B

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.12

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

2) The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.

  1. A) external root sheath
  2. B) cortex
  3. C) cuticle
  4. D) medulla

Answer: A

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

3) The single most important risk for skin cancer is ________.

  1. A) genetics
  2. B) use of farm chemicals
  3. C) race
  4. D) overexposure to UV radiation

Answer: D

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.11

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

4) A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot, almost to the papillary region of the dermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?

  1. A) basale
  2. B) spinosum
  3. C) lucidum
  4. D) granulosum

Answer: A

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

5) Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?

  1. A) Pacinian corpuscle
  2. B) Ruffini body
  3. C) free nerve ending
  4. D) tactile corpuscle

Answer: D

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

6) Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?

  1. A) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
  2. B) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.
  3. C) Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.
  4. D) Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair.

Answer: A

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

7) The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.

  1. A) serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passed
  2. B) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
  3. C) bind the hair root to the dermis
  4. D) cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicle

Answer: B

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.5

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

8) Which glands produce ear wax?

  1. A) merocrine glands
  2. B) ceruminous glands
  3. C) eccrine glands
  4. D) apocrine glands

Answer: B

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.9

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

9) The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.

  1. A) it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock
  2. B) the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus
  3. C) it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock
  4. D) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber

Answer: D

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

10) Which of the following cells and their functions are correctly matched?

  1. A) melanocytes protects cells in the stratum corneum from damaging effects of sun’s rays
  2. B) keratinocytes  provide sense of touch and pressure
  3. C) dendritic cells  activate the immune system
  4. D) tactile cells  protection

Answer: C

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

11) Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.

  1. A) maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules
  2. B) maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denature
  3. C) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
  4. D) provide the melanocyte with nutrients necessary for melanin synthesis

Answer: C

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

12) The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?

  1. A) stratum corneum
  2. B) stratum granulosum
  3. C) stratum lucidum
  4. D) stratum basale

Answer: D

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

13) Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?

  1. A) Glycolipids that are secreted by keratinocytes into extracellular spaces.
  2. B) The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it.
  3. C) Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.
  4. D) The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thick bundles of intermediate filaments.

Answer: A

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

14) The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?

  1. A) monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes
  2. B) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
  3. C) goblet cells, parietal cells, and chondrocytes
  4. D) osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells

Answer: B

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

15) The dermis has two major layers. Which layer constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

  1. A) the papillary layer
  2. B) the subcutaneous layer
  3. C) the reticular layer
  4. D) the hypodermal layer

Answer: C

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

16) Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been previously stretched and/or torn?

  1. A) The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causing permanent “black-and-blue marks.”
  2. B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
  3. C) The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.
  4. D) There is an episode of acute pain due to the large number of tactile corpuscles.

Answer: B

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

17) The papillary layer of the dermis is composed of loosely packed connective tissue with numerous peg-like projections that provide a great deal of surface area connecting the dermis to the epidermis. Which of the statements below do not represent benefits provided by the papillary layer’s anatomy?

  1. A) The spaces in the connective tissue allow many small blood vessels to deliver nutrients and pickup waste diffusing from the superficial epidermal layers.
  2. B) The looseness allows for easy separation of the dead cell layer of epidermis to be shed.
  3. C) The high surface area allows for a stronger connection of dermis to epidermis.
  4. D) The looseness allows for phagocytes to roam through the tissue and search for infection.

Answer: B

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

18) The friction ridges seen in finger, palm and foot prints are different among various people but very similar between identical twins. This evidence suggests which of the following?

  1. A) That friction ridges change over time.
  2. B) That friction ridges aid in griping.
  3. C) That friction ridges allow for better tactile sensation.
  4. D) That friction ridges are genetically determined.

Answer: D

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G2

HAPS LO: HAPS10

Bloom’s Level: 6 Evaluation

 

19) Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body’s natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?

  1. A) The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin’s color.
  2. B) The skin is protected by increasing the number of epidermal dendritic cells, which help to activate the immune system.
  3. C) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight.
  4. D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.

Answer: D

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

20) Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison’s disease?

  1. A) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
  2. B) Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.
  3. C) It is impossible to suggest Addison’s disease from an inspection of a person’s skin.
  4. D) The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.

Answer: A

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

21) What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?

  1. A) age and glandular products
  2. B) the size and number of hair follicles
  3. C) sex and hormones
  4. D) nutrition and hormones

Answer: D

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

22) Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?

  1. A) eccrine and apocrine
  2. B) mammary and ceruminous
  3. C) holocrine and mammary
  4. D) sebaceous and merocrine

Answer: A

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.9

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

23) The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.

  1. A) primarily uric acid
  2. B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
  3. C) metabolic wastes
  4. D) fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins

Answer: B

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.9

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

24) Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?

  1. A) in the axillary and anogenital area
  2. B) beneath the flexure lines in the body
  3. C) in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis
  4. D) in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet

Answer: A

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.9

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

25) The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.

  1. A) as a protective coating when one is swimming
  2. B) when the air temperature drops
  3. C) by high temperatures
  4. D) by hormones, especially androgens

Answer: D

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.8

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

26) In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?

  1. A) It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body.
  2. B) The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.
  3. C) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
  4. D) It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.

Answer: C

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

27) Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?

  1. A) by using the “rule of nines”
  2. B) by measuring urinary output and fluid intake
  3. C) by observing the tissues that are usually moist
  4. D) through blood analysis

Answer: A

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.12

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

28) Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.

  1. A) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
  2. B) hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predetermined length
  3. C) they grow much slower
  4. D) the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicle

Answer: A

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

29) Cells of the stratum spinosum have many interlocking desmosomes that will remain between the cells as they migrate to the stratum corneum. These cell junctions serve the body by ________.

  1. A) preventing ultraviolet light from penetrating the deeper layers of the epidermis
  2. B) allowing secretions like sweat or sebum to pass through
  3. C) preventing mechanical stress or trauma from damaging the epidermis
  4. D) stopping water loss and preventing dehydration

Answer: C

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

30) Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

  1. A) Production of vitamin D initiated by the suns UV light striking the skin.
  2. B) Formation of cerumen wax to deter insects from entering the ear.
  3. C) Changes in the response of the hair follicle to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
  4. D) Thickening of epidermis to form a callus in places where the skin is exposed to friction.

Answer: D

Section: 1.4, 5.2

Learning Outcome: 1.7, 1.8, 5.2, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

31) Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

  1. A) The secretion of antibacterial compounds in sebum.
  2. B) Removal of nitrogenous compounds like urea within the sweat.
  3. C) Release of chemical signals by keratinocytes that have been damaged by UV light that will increase the production of melanin.
  4. D) The near waterproof secretions of glycolipids that is released by cells in the stratum granulosum.

Answer: C

Section: 1.4, 5.2

Learning Outcome: 1.7, 1.8, 5.2, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

32) Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

  1. A) Release of sweat by eccrine glands in response to heat.
  2. B) An increase in sebum production in response to androgens (male sex hormones).
  3. C) Lack of pain in third degree burns due to damage to sensory nerves in the dermis.
  4. D) Excretion of salts within the sweat.

Answer: A

Section: 1.4, 5.2

Learning Outcome: 1.7, 1.8, 5.2, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

33) Which layer of skin is LEAST protected by melanin?

  1. A) stratum spinosum
  2. B) stratum granulosum
  3. C) stratum corneum
  4. D) stratum basale

Answer: C

Section: 5.2, 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.2, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

34) Which layer of the epidermis will be supplied with the highest levels of oxygen from the blood?

  1. A) stratum corneum
  2. B) stratum spinosum
  3. C) stratum granulosum
  4. D) stratum basale

Answer: D

Section: 5.2, 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

35) A patient has skin that is slightly blue in color. A likely treatment for this person might be ________.

  1. A) encouraging the patient to eat more orange colored vegetables (rich in beta carotene)
  2. B) exposing the patient to more sunlight.
  3. C) giving the patient supplemental oxygen by mask
  4. D) increasing fluids through IV therapy

Answer: C

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.3, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

36) The arrector pili muscle’s predominate, useful function in humans is to ________.

  1. A) stimulating faster hair growth
  2. B) assisting in the release sebum from nearby sebaceous glands
  3. C) preventing germs from entering the hair shaft
  4. D) provide warmth by making the hair stand on end

Answer: B

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.5

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

37) Which of the following is not one of the functions of the skin?

  1. A) Delivers important information about our environmental conditions to our brains.
  2. B) Gives the body its overall shape, loss of this function can be seen with the drooping of skin with age.
  3. C) Holds a portion of the bloods total volume to be shunted (diverted) to other organs when needed.
  4. D) Conducts endergonic metabolic chemical reactions using the suns energy to initiate vitamin D synthesis.

Answer: B

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

38) All of the following will help the skin to fight infection but one. Which of the following will have little effect on the skin’s ability to fight infection?

  1. A) Increased secretions of defensins from skin cells.
  2. B) Greater production of keratinocytes resulting in more layers of the stratum corneum.
  3. C) More tight junctions between keratinocytes of the stratum corneum.
  4. D) Greater production of melanin.

Answer: D

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

39) A light skinned person who is very cold may have a pale appearance. Which of the following is the best explanation for why this might be so?

  1. A) The cold has slowed the movement of blood.
  2. B) The person’s blood vessels in the dermis have undergone vasoconstriction (narrowing).
  3. C) The person is in fear of hypothermia (sever cold exposure).
  4. D) The person’s blood vessels in the epidermis have undergone vasodilation (widening).

Answer: B

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

40) A surgeon opens her patient by cutting the integument parallel to the cleavage lines of the dermis (tension lines). This will result in ________.

  1. A) slowed healing and grater scaring
  2. B) faster healing of the skin and less scaring
  3. C) greater chance of infection
  4. D) less chance for infection

Answer: B

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

41) A light skinned person may appear pink when they become over heated. The best explanation for this is ________.

  1. A) the blood vessels of the dermis have undergone vasodilation, bringing a greater volume of blood to the skin
  2. B) the heart is pumping faster because the person was probably exercising
  3. C) blood flow has increased to the sweat glands in order to increased their metabolic activity
  4. D) the melanocytes are responding to the heat of the sun and change the appearance of the skin with increased production

Answer: A

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

42) William has a cut that is superficial, painful but not bleeding. Based on this information you would predict that the cut has penetrated to ________.

  1. A) the papillary layer but not the reticular layer
  2. B) the stratum basale but not the dermal layers
  3. C) the subcutaneous layer, but no deeper
  4. D) the stratum corneum but not the stratum granulosum

Answer: B

Section: 5.2, 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.2, 5.3, 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

43) The surge of sex hormones that accompanies puberty has a wide range of effects on the body. One of those effects is to enhance the activity of the sebaceous glands, increasing the production of sebum. Which of the following is the most likely to result from the increased sebaceous activity?

  1. A) Increased hair growth.
  2. B) Decreased vitamin D synthesis.
  3. C) Increased cooling of the skin.
  4. D) Increased oily appearance and more acne.

Answer: D

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.8

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

 

1.4   Short Answer Questions

 

1) Cradle cap in infants is called ________.

Answer: seborrhea

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.8

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

2) The white crescent portion of the nail is called the ________.

Answer: lunula

Section: 5.6

Learning Outcome: 5.7

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

3) The layer of the epidermis immediately under the stratum lucidum in thick skin is the stratum ________.

Answer: granulosum

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

4) The ________ are the small muscles located in the dermis that cause goose bumps.

Answer: arrector pili

Section: 1.6

Learning Outcome: 1.12

Global LO: G3

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

5) A summertime golden bronze tan may not be a tan at all; especially if the skin appears almost metallic bronze, it may be the result of ________ disease.

Answer: Addison’s

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

6) The coarse hair of the eyebrows and scalp is called ________ hair.

Answer: terminal

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

7) Burns that result in injury to the epidermis and the upper regions of the dermis is called a ________ burn.

Answer: second-degree

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.12

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

8) Pigment-producing cells in the epidermis are ________.

Answer: melanocytes

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

9) The only place you will find stratum ________ is in the skin that covers the palms, fingertips, and soles of the feet.

Answer: lucidum

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

10) There are several reasons other than genetics for hair loss. Identify some of these other factors.

Answer: Stressors such as acutely high fever, surgery, severe emotional trauma; drugs such as antidepressants and chemotherapy drugs; burns and radiation; lack of adequate nutrition due to poor skin circulation; and a protein-deficient diet can cause hair loss or thinning.

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

11) In addition to the synthesis of vitamin D, keratinocytes are able to carry out some other biologically important functions. Name at least two of these other functions.

Answer: Keratinocyte enzymes can neutralize carcinogens that penetrate the epidermis. Keratinocytes are also able to convert topical cortisone to a more active anti-inflammatory form.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

12) How are burns commonly classified? Give an example.

Answer: Burns are classified according to their severity or depth. For example, in first-degree burns, only the epidermis is damaged; in second degree burns, the epidermis and upper dermis are damaged; in third degree burns, there is widespread damage of epidermis and dermis.

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.12

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

13) What are vellus hairs?

Answer: pale, fine body hair associated with newborn children, women, bald men, and “peach fuzz” on all people.

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

14) Balding men have tried all kinds of remedies, including hair transplants, to restore their lost locks. Explain the cause of male pattern baldness.

Answer: It appears to be genetically determined and sex-linked, and is possibly caused by a delayed-action gene that responds to DHT and alters normal metabolism.

Section: 5.5

Learning Outcome: 5.6

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

15) The skin protects, but how does it protect us and from what? Describe how the epidermal dendritic cells and melanocytes protect us. Describe what these cells protect us from.

Answer: The epidermal dendritic cells act as antigen presenting cells (APC), they present part of the pathogens (fragments of pathogens called epitopes) to other immune system cells to trigger an immune response to an infection. The melanocytes produce melanin in response to exposure to cell damaging, ultraviolet light. UV light is converted to heat when it strikes melanin pigment. Unlike UV light, heat will not damage the cells particularly the DNA within the nucleus of the skin’s cells.

Section: 5.2, 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS2, HAPS4

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

16) Billions of consumer dollars are spent for deodorants and antiperspirants each year. Explain the production of body odors frequently associated with axillary skin.

Answer: Sweat is mostly an odorless watery secretion produced by eccrine and apocrine glands. The odor usually arises when bacteria break down lipids and proteins in the surface secretions.

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.9

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

17) Why are the apocrine sweat glands fairly unimportant in thermal regulation?

Answer: They are largely confined to the axillary and anogenital regions rather than distributed on the body where heat can be more readily dissipated.

Section: 5.7

Learning Outcome: 5.9

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

18) Why is profuse sweating on a hot day good, and yet a potential problem?

Answer: Good because the sweat and evaporating of the sweat causes cooling of the body. Bad because excessive water and salt loss may occur. Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may follow.

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

19) What is the function of skin dermal folds and deep skin creases?

Answer: to accommodate for joint movement

Section: 5.3

Learning Outcome: 5.3

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1

Bloom’s Level: 2 Comprehension

 

 

1.5   Clinical Questions

 

1) The temperature yesterday was an uncomfortable 98°F. You unwisely chose to play tennis at noon, counting on your body’s internal defenses to protect you against heat exhaustion. How did your body respond to this distress?

Answer: The thermoreceptors sense the temperature change, and neural stimulation responds by stimulating sweat glands. Their watery products evaporated at the skin surface and cooled the body. Blood vessels in the dermis also responded by dilating and releasing heat to the exterior.

Section: 5.8

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

2) Mary noticed a large, brown spot on her skin. She has been playing tennis in the sun for several years without sun protection. She reported the discovery to a friend, who told her to apply the ABCD rule to determine whether or not she had malignant melanoma. Her friend told her that if her answer was “no” to the questions that were asked by the ABCD rule, she had nothing to worry about. What is the ABCD rule and should she ignore the spot if her answers are negative?

Answer: The ABCD rule refers to the following: asymmetry—where the two sides of the spot do not match; border irregularity—the borders are not round and smooth; color—the pigmented spot contains shades of black, brown, tan, and sometimes blues and reds; and diameter—the spot is larger than 6 mm in diameter. It is imperative that Mary have a physician examine the spot immediately. Any unusual lesion on the skin of a sun worshipper should be examined and the ABCD rule does not account for all possible factors, such as rapid growth, even if less than 6 mm.

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.11

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 4 Analysis

 

3) The Waldorf family was caught in a fire but escaped. Unfortunately, the father and daughter suffered burns. The father had second-degree burns on his entire chest, abdomen, and both arms, and third-degree burns on his entire left lower extremity. The daughter suffered first-degree burns on her whole head and neck and second-degree burns throughout both lower extremities.

 

  1. What percentage of the father’s body was covered by burns?
  2. What percentage of the daughter’s body received first-degree burns?
  3. What part of the daughter’s body has both the dermis and epidermis involved?
  4. The father experiences a good deal of pain in the area of the chest and

abdomen, but little pain in the leg. Why?

Answer:

  1. 45% (18% anterior torso + 9% both arms but not forearms + 18% lower extremity)
  2. 9%
  3. 36%
  4. Normally, third-degree burns sear nerve endings off. When the tissue regenerates, pain will return. Second-degree burns are usually very painful because of the irritated but live nerve endings.

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.12

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

4) Betty, an 83 year old woman, is bedfast due to a severely broken hip. Unfortunately, she has developed a decubitus ulcer. What is a decubitus ulcer and what may have caused it to occur?

Answer: A decubitus ulcer is a localized breakdown and ulceration of skin due to interference with its blood supply. Usually occurs over a bony prominence, such as the hip or heel, that is subjected to continuous pressure; also called a bedsore.

Section: Clinical terms

Learning Outcome: 5.10a

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 1 Knowledge

 

5) Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes. Melanoma is most common in Caucasians between 40 and 70 years of age. Explain why Caucasians would have a greater incidence of melanoma.

Answer: Melanoma has its beginnings in melanocytes, the skin pigment cells. These cells produce the dark protective pigment called melanin to protect against sun damage to DNA. Since the melanocytes in Caucasian people do not make as much melanin per cell as darker-skinned individuals, their melanocytes are more easily sun-damaged, resulting in damaged DNA cells that are more apt to lose genetic control of their own cell division.

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.11

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

6) The 68-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital medical floor with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. His wife asks the nurse why his skin looks blue. How would you explain cyanosis to the patient and his wife?

Answer: Cyanosis is a dusky bluish or grayish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs with reduced oxygen levels. Without enough oxygen getting to the tissues the skin in Caucasians appears blue due to the color combination of dark maroon blood seen through the yellowish tint of skin. At close inspection of the conjunctiva and palms and soles may also show evidence of cyanosis.

Section: 5.4

Learning Outcome: 5.4

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

7) Explain why soap that has an alkaline base may not be healthy for some patients to use daily.

Answer: The skin’s acid mantle retards growth of bacteria. Soap may destroy the acid mantle of the skin, causing it to lose its protective mechanism. Some soaps contain antibacterial agents, which can change the natural flora of the skin.

Section: 5.2

Learning Outcome: 5.2

Global LO: G2, G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS2, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application

 

8) Robert, a surfer, has a mole that has changed its shape and size. His doctor, applying the ABCDE) rule, diagnosed a melanoma. What do the letters ABCDE) represent?

Answer: A = asymmetry

B = border irregularity

C = color

D = diameter

E = elevation

Section: 5.9

Learning Outcome: 5.11

Global LO: G7

HAPS LO: HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level: 3 Application