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Test Bank for Lifespan Development 6th Canadian Edition by Boyd

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Test Bank for Lifespan Development 6th Canadian Edition by Boyd

Test Bank for Lifespan Development 6th Canadian Edition by Boyd

 

Chapter 01: Basic Concepts and Methods

 

Chapter 01 Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of ________ in our bodies, behaviour, thinking, emotions, social relationships, and personalities.

A) maturity and stability

B) age-related changes

C) social and cultural norms

D) genetic and biological influences

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-01

Page-Reference: 2

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) age-related changes

 

2. The belief that humans must seek redemption and lead a disciplined life to reduce the influence of innate tendencies toward acting immorally is associated with the philosophical doctrine of

A) innate goodness.

B) original sin.

C) empiricism.

D) blank slate.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-02

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) original sin.

 

3. A developmental psychologist who espouses the ideas of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau would suggest that the basis for human development is

A) life experiences and external environmental influences that shape a "blank slate" malleable individual.

B) preprogrammed sequential stages and genetically inherited traits.

C) the struggle between an individual's selfish/sinful nature and redemption.

D) an individual's effort to achieve his or her inborn potential.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-03

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) an individual's effort to achieve his or her inborn potential.

 

4. A developmental psychologist who espouses the ideas of the English philosopher John Locke would suggest that the basis for human development is

A) the struggle between an individual's selfish/sinful nature and redemption.

B) an individual's effort to achieve his or her inborn potential.

C) preprogrammed sequential stages and genetically inherited traits.

D) environmental influences that shape a "blank slate" malleable individual.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-04

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) environmental influences that shape a "blank slate" malleable individual.

 

5. Which scientist contributed the concept of developmental stages to the scientific study of human development?

A) Charles Darwin

B) John Watson

C) Arnold Gesell

D) G. Stanley Hall

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-05

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) Charles Darwin

 

6. ______ are recognized as the first scientific studies of child development.

A) Darwin's baby biographies

B) Gesell's studies of maturation

C) Hall's questionnaires and interviews

D) Piaget's cognitive theories

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-06

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: C) Hall's questionnaires and interviews

 

7. Early developmental psychology pioneer G. Stanley Hall believed that developmentalists should identify ________ to further the field's understanding of child development.

A) milestones

B) norms

C) developmental stages

D) maturation processes

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-07

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) norms

 

8. ________ is the term used to describe the average age at which children reach developmental milestones.

A) "Norms"

B) "Maturation stage"

C) "Psycho-social developmental stage"

D) "Phenomenon"

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-08

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) "Norms"

 

9. Piaget's landmark body of work defined our understanding of cognitive development in children. Piaget's work convinced him that logical thinking develops in _______ stages between birth and adolescence.

A) two

B) three

C) four

D) five

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-09

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: C) four

 

10. Arnold Gesell suggested the term ________ to describe genetically programmed sequential patterns of change such as puberty or menopause.

A) "stages"

B) "maturation"

C) "norms"

D) "milestones"

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-10

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) "maturation"

 

11. Genetically programmed patterns of change, such as the changes associated with puberty, exemplify the developmental process known as

A) milestone attainment.

B) maturation.

C) developmental stages.

D) individuation.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-11

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) maturation.

 

12. Which of the following best describes Arnold Gesell's thoughts on maturation?

A) Infants are taught how to walk.

B) Infants do not have to be taught how to walk.

C) Infants are taught how to use their fine motor skills.

D) Infants model their parents in learning gross motor skills.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-12

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) Infants do not have to be taught how to walk.

 

13. Based on the work of Jean Piaget, which of the following developmental achievements does not belong in a description of children's cognitive development?

A) Children learn through observation of role models and their environment.

B) Children use their senses and motor abilities to explore the world and develop basic concepts of space and time.

C) Children begin to use symbols, such as language, to think and communicate.

D) Children use their logical thinking skills to solve problems in the everyday world.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-13

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) Children learn through observation of role models and their environment.

 

14. How did the threat of war in Europe lead directly to the creation of a formal organization of practicing psychologists in Canada?

A) Canadian psychologists were ordered to help with the British war effort.

B) Canadian psychologists wanted to join the war effort.

C) Canadian psychologists were recruited to help children in Britain.

D) The military gave Canadian psychologists funding for child and family related research.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-14

Page-Reference: 6

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) Canadian psychologists wanted to join the war effort.

 

15. Canadian psychologists were very active during World War II, performing numerous consultation and training functions for the British government and the war effort that included all of the following EXCEPT

A) personnel selection

B) recruitment

C) public opinion management

D) discipline strategies

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-15

Page-Reference: 6

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) discipline strategies

 

16. The central factors in the naturenurture controversy are

A) environmental continuity and psychological comfort.

B) inborn biases and genetic predispositions.

C) change triggered by social processes or change caused by cultural influences.

D) biological processes and experiential factors.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-16

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) biological processes and experiential factors.

 

17. Which of the following most clearly represents a core belief of the lifespan perspective of developmental psychology?

A) Due to aging population trends, older adulthood must become the primary focus of developmental psychology.

B) Culture ultimately influences development more than any other factor.

C) The capacity for plasticity in response to environmental demands is the most important force in determining developmental outcomes.

D) All stages of development must be understood in terms of the culture and context in which they occur.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-17

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) All stages of development must be understood in terms of the culture and context in which they occur.

 

18. According to the "lifespan" perspective, _______ have/has helped psychology greatly enhance its understanding of human development.

A) historical theories

B) input from many disciplines

C) significant increases in the lifespan

D) advances in biology

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-18

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) input from many disciplines

 

19. What is the term developmentalist Paul Baltes used to describe one's adaptive capacity for positive change in response to the environmental demands that are possible in one's lifespan?

A) goal directed

B) plasticity

C) maximizing gain

D) compensating strategies

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-19

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) plasticity

 

20. Scientists who study age-related changes in development use three broad categories called ______ to classify developmental changes.

A) "stages"

B) "spheres"

C) "zones"

D) "domains"

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-20

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) "domains"

 

21. The three broad categories used by developmentalists to classify developmental changes include physical, social, and _______ domains.

A) biological

B) psychological

C) cognitive

D) maturational

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-21

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: C) cognitive

 

22. Today's developmental theorists have adopted a model that considers human development to be the result of complex reciprocal interaction between

A) cultural biases and parenting.

B) multiple personal and environmental factors.

C) plasticity and maturational patterns.

D) social factors and individual development.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-22

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) multiple personal and environmental factors.

 

23. The theory that considers human development to be a complex reciprocal interaction between multiple personal and environmental factors is

A) the inbornist model.

B) the interactionist model.

C) internalist model.

D) the ecologicalist model.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-23

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) the interactionist model.

 

24. The concepts of vulnerability and resilience coupled with environmental factors are key features of the ______ model of development.

A) nature–nurture

B) lifespan

C) continuity–discontinuity

D) interactionist

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-24

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) interactionist

 

25. Which of the following is not an illustration of the interactionist model of experience?

A) Juanita has always found it easy and enjoyable to meet new people and make new friends. Her friends say, "Juanita has never met a stranger!"

B) When one-year-old Roberto pinched his fingers in a closing door, he screamed and cried and could not be soothed for 10 minutes.

C) Sally's family has always teased her about being so clumsy and "klutzy" that she falls over her own feet. So Sally avoids sports or activities such as dancing or tennis because she knows she would look foolish.

D) Dimitri's family and co-workers have to be careful in their interactions with him. It seems he is always hearing criticism or hostility when none is intended.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-1-25

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) When one-year-old Roberto pinched his fingers in a closing door, he screamed and cried and could not be soothed for 10 minutes.

 

26. Studies of Canadian children have shown that a combination of a highly vulnerable child and a poor or unsupportive environment produces the most negative developmental outcome. However,

A) extensive data exists to support the possibility of a potential positive outcome.

B) either of these two negative conditions alone, a vulnerable child or a poor environment, can be overcome.

C) environment plays a lesser part in outcome because delinquent or highly aggressive behaviour is genetically predetermined.

D) parent–child relationships and child developmental outcomes are independent of, and unaffected by, any factors other than those of the immediate family environment.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-26

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) either of these two negative conditions alone, a vulnerable child or a poor environment, can be overcome.

 

27. Which of the following developmental outcomes would be most consistent with the vulnerability/resilience interactionist model of development?

A) Positive developmental outcome is possible only for children with few vulnerabilities and many protective factors.

B) Very low IQ scores are most common among children who were born with a very low birth weight and who are reared in highly stressed, uninvolved families.

C) Normal birth weight infants born into upper socioeconomic status families invariably have superior levels of intelligence.

D) Children born into caring, facilitative families have sufficient protective factors to overcome or offset any vulnerabilities that might potentially affect their development.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-1-27

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) Very low IQ scores are most common among children who were born with a very low birth weight and who are reared in highly stressed, uninvolved families.

 

28. The _____ issue seeks to find out if age-related change is determined more by qualitative or quantitative factors.

A) nature–nurture

B) universal–individual

C) continuity–discontinuity

D) atypical–typical

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-28

Page-Reference: 9-10

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) continuity–discontinuity

 

29. Our sense of "the right time" to go to college, marry, have children, or retire is determined by our

A) biological clock.

B) social clock.

C) age norms.

D) gender.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-29

Page-Reference: 10

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) social clock.

 

30. Hannah is thrilled that she has been accepted into an architecture program. All of her friends have also received letters of acceptance to their desired school programs; they all feel they are achieving in life what they need to. This is referred to as

A) biological clock.

B) social norms.

C) developmental milestones.

D) social clock.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-30

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: D) social clock.

 

31. Maria Ivosevic married for the first time at age 39, and at age 40 she is pregnant for the first time. She is now considering starting college to become a computer systems engineer. When Maria laughingly tells her friends, "I have never done anything when I was supposed to," she is referring to

A) the social clock.

B) the biological clock.

C) the critical period.

D) social norms.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-31

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) the social clock.

 

32. ________ is a term describing a generally negative attitude about aging, typified by the belief that older persons are incompetent or unable to complete required job functions.

A) "Biological clock"

B) "Discontinuity"

C) "Ageism"

D) "Plasticity"

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-32

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) "Ageism"

 

33. The notion that job performance declines in older adults, leading to denied opportunities to work, is referred to as

A) "the social clock."

B) "cohort effects."

C) "ageism."

D) "group specific changes."

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-33

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) "ageism."

 

34. Roberta is intelligent, works hard, and is 20 years old. She applies for a job at a bank to help pay for her college education. She does not get the job, because the bank feels she is not old enough. Roberta has experienced

A) the social clock.

B) cohort effects.

C) ageism.

D) discontinuity.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-34

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) ageism.

 

35. Which of the following is an accurate summary of the influences of culture and cohort upon development?

A) The cultural factors that affect individuals in our society today are the same factors that were influential in 1940 or will be influential in 2040.

B) Most of the patterns of cohort development observed in our culture will appear in every other culture.

C) Development is influenced by variations of culture and by the historical experiences of generations within each culture.

D) The individuals within each culture are likely to have age-linked experiences that are similar for all cohorts within that culture.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-35

Page-Reference: 10

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) Development is influenced by variations of culture and by the historical experiences of generations within each culture.

 

36. A system of meanings and customs shared by an identifiable group and transmitted across generations comprises the ________ of the group.

A) age norms

B) cohort

C) culture

D) collective identity

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-36

Page-Reference: 10

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) culture

 

37. A cohort is

A) a sequence of shared cultural experiences.

B) everyone who belongs to a specific culture.

C) a genetically programmed, sequential pattern of change.

D) a group of individuals who are born within a fairly narrow time frame and who share historical experiences.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-37

Page-Reference: 10

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) a group of individuals who are born within a fairly narrow time frame and who share historical experiences.

 

38. Which of the following are members of the same cohort?

A) an urban child in Europe and a rural child in Canada

B) a woman raising her children during World War II and a woman raising her children during the Vietnam conflict in the 1970s

C) a grandfather, his son, and his four grandsons

D) a high-school student in Alberta and a high-school student in Quebec

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-38

Page-Reference: 10

Skill: Application

 

Answer: D) a high-school student in Alberta and a high-school student in Quebec

 

39. The idea that there are significant periods in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence or absence of particular influences is referred to as

A) critical period.

B) on-time timing.

C) off-time timing.

D) sensitive period.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-39

Page-Reference: 10

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) critical period.

 

40. Which of the following illustrates the concepts of critical period or sensitive period?

A) A 3-month-old infant cries when a new babysitter arrives.

B) The period from 6 to 12 months of age is the important time for infants to start eating solid foods.

C) In the months after birth, infants need to experience certain types of stimulation or experiences in order for their nervous systems to develop normally and completely.

D) A 10-month-old infant cries when he is not allowed to throw food on the floor.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-1-40

Page-Reference: 10-11

Skill: Analysis

 

Answer: C) In the months after birth, infants need to experience certain types of stimulation or experiences in order for their nervous systems to develop normally and completely.

 

41. Developmental psychologists use the term "sensitive period" to mean

A) a span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence.

B) a time of psychological fragility, usually due to some type of loss, such as the death of a spouse, termination of employment, or deterioration due to aging.

C) the period of time during which developmental norms for physical development are reached or achieved.

D) the specific period in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence (or absence) of some particular kind of experience.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-1-41

Page-Reference: 11

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) a span of months or years during which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence.

 

42. Which of the following is the BEST example of an "off-time" event that could have negative effects upon an individual's development?

A) being divorced at the age of 25

B) the deaths of elderly parents

C) the death of one's spouse at the age of 30

D) experiencing a life-threatening illness at the age of 60

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-1-42

Page-Reference: 11

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) the death of one's spouse at the age of 30

 

43. Atypical development can include all of the following except:

A) exceptionalities

B) developmental delays

C) psychological disorders

D) death in late adulthood

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-1-43

Page-Reference: 11

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) death in late adulthood

 

44. Which of the following is NOT a goal of developmental psychology?

A) to explain

B) to improve

C) to describe

D) to predict

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-44

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) to improve

 

45. Sets of statements that propose general principles to explain development are known as

A) theories.

B) the research design.

C) research questions.

D) hypotheses.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-45

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) theories.

 

46. Predictions that can be tested in an effort to explain human development are known as

A) influences.

B) theories.

C) variables.

D) hypotheses.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-46

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: D) hypotheses.

 

47. Which of the following statements is the best example of a hypothesis about human development?

A) All the children in the high-scoring group were breast-fed as infants, which explains their higher levels of achievement.

B) If breast milk is a superior supplement for infant brain development, then on psychological tests, children who were breast-fed as infants should perform better than children who were not breast-fed as infants.

C) Human breast milk contains nutrients that are essential for the formation of neurons and synapses in an infant's developing brain.

D) Cross-cultural studies have determined that human breast milk provides the ideal nutrition for infant brain development.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-1-47

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) If breast milk is a superior supplement for infant brain development, then on psychological tests, children who were breast-fed as infants should perform better than children who were not breast-fed as infants.

 

48. In a(n) ________ design, subjects of different ages are studied at the same time and the results are compared.

A) ethnographic

B) longitudinal

C) cross-sectional

D) cross-cultural

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-48

Page-Reference: 12–13

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: C) cross-sectional

 

49. Which of the following is the best example of a cross-sectional research study?

A) Each year the five-year-olds of Ontario are given number and letter proficiency exams before they begin kindergarten.

B) Dr. Sanchez assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in December 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007.

C) A number of graduate students studied the playground interactions of two classes of fourth graders by secretly videotaping the playground activities from the third-floor window of an adjacent building.

D) Dr. Huang assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in September 2001.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-49

Page-Reference: 12-13

Skill: Application

 

Answer: D) Dr. Huang assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in September 2001.

 

50. Beginning in 1976, Jane Ledingham and Alex Swartzman began studying children living in inner-city neighbourhoods in Montreal, and they are still studying these same people, now grown adults, today. This is an example of

A) a sequential study.

B) a longitudinal study.

C) a cohort effect.

D) a cross-sectional study.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-50

Page-Reference: 13-14

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) a longitudinal study.

 

51. The National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth collects data on children every 2 years (1 cycle) as they grow into adulthood. A new sample of infants is added at the third cycle, and at each subsequent cycle. This is an example of a(n) ________ design.

A) longitudinal

B) cross-sectional

C) experimental

D) sequential

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-51

Page-Reference: 15

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: D) sequential

 

52. The Maple Leaf Elementary School counsellor, psychologist, and social worker and the parents of 8-year-old Jimmy Jackson are working as a cooperative team to determine why Jimmy exhibits a pattern of highly aggressive behaviour toward his peers and teachers. Jimmy's behaviour has been extensively observed, he has been subjected to a battery of psychological tests, and his parents have been interviewed. This in-depth examination of Jimmy Jackson is an example of a(n)

A) correlational study.

B) case study.

C) ethnography.

D) naturalistic observation.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-52

Page-Reference: 16

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) case study.

 

53. Of the following, which is the best example of a naturalistic observation?

A) A serial killer is subjected to a battery of psychological exams and intensive interviews in an effort to determine the factors that influenced his developmental pathway to homicidal behaviour.

B) A researcher interested in the effects of caffeine on learning provides high-caffeine drinks to an experimental group who are being taught a complicated game and caffeine-free drinks to a control group who are being taught the same game.

C) Researchers interested in children's gender-related interactions videotape children while they are playing during recess and while they are engaged in cooperative learning assignments in their classrooms.

D) A researcher is studying the effects of sleep deprivation on 20-year-olds in a sleep lab.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-53

Page-Reference: 16

Skill: Application

 

Answer: C) Researchers interested in children's gender-related interactions videotape children while they are playing during recess and while they are engaged in cooperative learning assignments in their classrooms.

 

54. Which of the following is a TRUE statement about correlations?

A) A correlation of +.80 is stronger than a correlation of -.80.

B) A correlation of +1.00 indicates a weak relationship between two variables.

C) A correlation of zero indicates a strong relationship between two variables.

D) Correlations can range from -1.00 to +1.00 and describe the strength of a relationship between two variables.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-54

Page-Reference: 16-17

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: D) Correlations can range from -1.00 to +1.00 and describe the strength of a relationship between two variables.

 

55. The ________ research method would be effective in extensively studying a teacher who has superior skills in conflict resolution.

A) survey

B) case study

C) naturalistic observation

D) cross-sectional design

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-55

Page-Reference: 16

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) case study

 

56. Researchers in Canada have established a negative correlation between the temperature and the use of heaters. This means that

A) there is no relationship between temperature and use of heaters.

B) as the temperature rises, the use of heaters increases.

C) as the temperature rises, the use of heaters decreases.

D) the relationship between temperature and use of heaters is ambiguous.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-56

Page-Reference: 16-17

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) as the temperature rises, the use of heaters decreases.

 

57. Which of the following is NOT a key feature of an experimental study?

A) an independent variable

B) subjects in a control group

C) controls for cohort effects

D) subjects in an experimental group

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-57

Page-Reference: 17-18

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: C) controls for cohort effects

 

58. A researcher who wants to study how radiation affects a developing human fetus might use a(n) ________ research design.

A) case study

B) quasi-experimental

C) experimental

D) naturalistic observation

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-58

Page-Reference: 18

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) quasi-experimental

 

59. In a research study examining the effects of nutrition on the physical growth of children in early childhood, a researcher randomly assigns a group of children and their parents to meet with a dietician to receive proper dietary instruction. The other group of children do not receive proper dietary guidance. After two years of study, the researcher compares the average growth of the two groups by reviewing their height and weight. The independent variable in this study is ________ and the dependent variable is ________.

A) dietary instruction; height and weight

B) level of activity; height and weight

C) parental input; length of the dietary instruction

D) height and weight; dietary instruction

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-59

Page-Reference: 17

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) dietary instruction; height and weight

 

60. A researcher interested in the effects of test anxiety on math test performance finds 40 volunteer students who report high levels of test anxiety. The researcher randomly assigns 20 of the students to a workshop on relaxation techniques and the other 20 students to a workshop on basic computer skills. After four weeks of classes, the researcher compares the average math test scores of the two groups to see which group has better scores. The independent variable in this study is ________ and the dependent variable is ________.

A) type of workshop; math test scores

B) length of the workshop; test anxiety

C) test anxiety; length of the workshops

D) math test scores; type of workshop

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-60

Page-Reference: 17

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) type of workshop; math test scores

 

61. A researcher is interested in determining the effects of a medication on high blood pressure. She administers treatment to one group and no special treatment to the remaining group. The group that receives no special treatment is referred to as

A) the experimental group.

B) the control group.

C) the placebo group.

D) the contrast group.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-61

Page-Reference: 17

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) the control group.

 

62. Dr. Rosalind Chiu has spent 5 years in northern Ontario studying children raised in either Anglophone or Francophone families to investigate differences in child-rearing practices. Dr. Chiu's work is an example of ________ research.

A) longitudinal

B) sequential

C) ethnographic

D) multi-cultural

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-62

Page-Reference: 18–19

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: C) ethnographic

 

63. Dr. Jones requires the students in her developmental psychology class to participate in research on parenting style and childhood punishment. Each student completes a survey and responds to questions about these topics. When all data is collected, Dr. Jones condenses each student's responses and creates an alphabetized summary sheet of the data as a handout for the participants. Is there a problem with this strategy?

A) Yes. The preferred methodology for this type of research is to conduct experiments.

B) Yes. The ethical principle of participants' right to confidentiality has been violated.

C) Yes. There is a problem because the classroom creates a cohort effect.

D) No. The students completed the survey without complaint of confidentiality.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-63

Page-Reference: 19-20

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) Yes. The ethical principle of participants' right to confidentiality has been violated.

 

64. The Canadian Psychological Association has published ethical standards for practitioners, researchers, and scientists that address

A) protection of the rights of humans used in research.

B) protection of the rights of humans and animals used in research.

C) requirements to justify the benefits of research versus harm to human subjects.

D) scrutiny of research methods by an appointed unbiased observer.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-1-64

Page-Reference: 19-20

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) protection of the rights of humans and animals used in research.

 

65. Complete the list of research ethics endorsed by the Canadian Psychological Association: informed consent; confidentiality; knowledge of results; explanation for deception (if used); and

A) respect for the dignity of humans.

B) responsibility to society.

C) protection from harm.

D) responsibility to participants.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-1-65

Page-Reference: 19–20

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: C) protection from harm.

 

Chapter 01 True-False Questions

 

1. The original sin doctrine holds that a child is born with an innately good and competent nature.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-01

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

2. Prior to World War II, there was no formal organization of practicing psychologists in Canada.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-02

Page-Reference: 6

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

3. The term "development" now encompasses the entire lifespan rather than just childhood and adolescence.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-03

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

4. Stanley Hall of Clark University used questionnaires to study large numbers of children. His article "The Contents of Children's Minds on Entering School" represented the first scientific study of child development.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-04

Page-Reference: 4

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

5. Charles Darwin and other evolutionists believed they could understand the developing human by keeping baby biographies.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-05

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

6. Darwin's baby biographies were the first scientific studies of child development.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-2-06

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) False

 

7. The concept of developmental stages came from Darwin's theory of evolution.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-07

Page-Reference: 3

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

8. G. Stanley Hall opposed Darwin's concept of developmental milestones related to age.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-08

Page-Reference: 4-5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

9. Beginning to walk or beginning to menstruate are examples of development based upon maturation.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-09

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Analysis

 

Answer: A) True

 

10. The Canadian Psychological Association was founded in 1939.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-10

Page-Reference: 6

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

11. Modern developmental psychology practices a multidisciplinary approach known as the "lifespan perspective."

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-11

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

12. Piaget's description of the cognitive stages of development and the theory he proposed to explain them became the foundation of modern developmental psychology.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-2-12

Page-Reference: 5

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

13. The term "naturenurture controversy" is used to describe the debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experience to individual development.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-13

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: A) True

 

14. According to the vulnerability and resilience view, tendencies toward emotional irritability or alcoholism is a exclusively a function of environmental influences.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-14

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

15. Puberty is an example of a quantitative change.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-15

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

16. In Canada, the belief that adults should retire at age 65 is defined by the social clock.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-16

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) True

 

17. "Ethnography" is a term that describes a system of meanings and customs shared by an identifiable group and transmitted across generations.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-17

Page-Reference: 18

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

18. Studying one woman over a two-year period to obtain information regarding her physical health and habits is a great example of survey research.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-18

Page-Reference: 16

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) False

 

19. The concept of the critical period would explain why many kindergartners are distressed during the first week of their kindergarten experience.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-2-19

Page-Reference: 10

Skill: Analysis

 

Answer: B) False

 

20. Examples of atypical development consist of developmental delay, mental illness, aggressiveness, and the like.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-20

Page-Reference: 11

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) True

 

21. "Older adults make more memory errors than young and middle-aged adults do." This statement is an example of "prediction," one of the goals of psychology.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-2-21

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) False

 

22. Although some research may be used to improve people's lives, this is not always the case with research involving developmental psychology because many variables may be involved that affect individuals differently, coupled with the fact that there are no concrete answers.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-22

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) True

 

23. A cross-sectional research study follows a group of subjects over a period of time.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-23

Page-Reference: 12-13

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

24. Because longitudinal studies require only single tests of subjects, practice effects and loss of subjects are not problematic for researchers who use this research strategy.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-24

Page-Reference: 13–15

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: B) False

 

25. If a control group is not used during an experiment, the researcher cannot rule out the possibility that something other than the treatment is creating the observed results.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-2-25

Page-Reference: 17

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: A) True

 

26. A researcher measures the impact of different types of activities at child-care programs upon the intellectual, emotional, and social well-being of economically disadvantaged preschool children. The independent variable in this experiment is the type of activity.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-2-26

Page-Reference: 17

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) False

 

27. Research ethics exist to protect humans but are sorely lacking for the protection of animals used in research.

A) True

B) False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-2-27

Page-Reference: 19

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer: B) False

 

Chapter 01 Short Answer Questions

 

1. Summarize the contributions made to developmental psychology by Darwin, G. Stanley Hall, Arnold Gesell, and Piaget.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-3-01

Page-Reference: 3–5

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

2. Briefly describe the historical roots of psychology in Canada. What role did World War II play in this process?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-02

Page-Reference: 6

Skill: Analysis

 

Answer:

 

3. Briefly list and explain the three (3) different domains of development.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-03

Page-Reference: 7–8

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer:

 

4. Describe the lifespan approach to developmental psychology. What factors have enriched our understanding of development? What factors have contributed to the expansion in focus beyond childhood and adolescence?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-04

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

5. Discuss Paul Balte's concept of plasticity in development and its role in adjustment to aging.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-05

Page-Reference: 7

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

6. What is the naturenurture controversy? If developmental psychologists have moved away from either/or approaches to the question of the relative contributions of biology and environment to development, what perspectives or approaches currently offer insight into the naturenurture question?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-06

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

7. What are the key features of the interactionist model of development?

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-3-07

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

8. A developmental psychologist who employs an interactionist model to study human development would examine which aspects of an individual's development?

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-3-08

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

9. Describe what is meant by a "social clock" and give an example.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-3-09

Page-Reference: 9

Skill: Application

 

Answer:

 

10. What is a critical period? What is a sensitive period? Give examples to illustrate your answers.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-10

Page-Reference: 10-11

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

11. List and explain the four (4) goals developmental psychologists set out to achieve through the usage of the scientific method.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-11

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

12. What are the key features of longitudinal research design, cross-sectional design, and sequential design? What factors might determine which design a researcher will use?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-12

Page-Reference: 12-15

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

13. Identify and explain the limitation of correlations in research. What is the difference between positive and negative correlations?

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-3-13

Page-Reference: 16-17

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer:

 

14. Outline the primary differences between the experimental group and the control group in experiments. Why is a control group necessary for effective experimental research purposes?

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 01-3-14

Page-Reference: 17

Skill: Knowledge

 

Answer:

 

15. Describe the five ethical research standards outlined by the CPA. Explain how each standard offers protection to human and animal (where applicable) research participants.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-3-15

Page-Reference: 19

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer:

 

Chapter 01 Essay Questions

 

1. Explain the interactionist approach to development. What is the nature-nurture controversy and how does it impact child vulnerabilities and resiliency?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-4-01

Page-Reference: 8

Skill: Comprehension

 

Answer: Answers will vary

 

2. Consider the three basic categories of age-related change: 1) universal changes common to all human beings; 2) group-specific changes shared by members of a culture or a cohort; and 3) individual differences resulting from unique, non-shared experiences. Provide an illustrative example for each of these categories of change. Discuss which of these categories, in your opinion, is the most powerful or influential source of developmental change.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 01-4-02

Page-Reference: 9–11

Skill: Analysis

 

Answer: Answers will vary

 

3. Identify the four goals of developmental psychology, and describe how developmental psychologists might use scientific methods to achieve each of the goals.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-4-03

Page-Reference: 12

Skill: Application

 

Answer: Answers will vary

 

4. As a researcher, you are interested in studying the impact of mothers' behaviour in childhood upon their own children's psychosocial and health problems. Using the cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential design methodologies, describe how you could develop research projects to study this issue. What ethical issues would you need to consider as you develop your research designs?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-4-04

Page-Reference: 12–15

Skill: Application

 

Answer: Answers will vary

 

5. The Tuskegee syphilis experiment was a clinical study conducted from 19321972 by the U.S. Public Health Service to document the effects of untreated syphilis in African American men who believed they were simply receiving free health care from the U.S. government. List and discuss the ethical standards that have been violated by this experiment.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 01-4-05

Page-Reference: 19

Skill: Application

 

Answer: Answers will vary