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Test Bank for Lifespan Development 7th Edition by Boyd

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Test Bank for Lifespan Development 7th Edition by Boyd

Test Bank for Lifespan Development 7th Edition by Boyd

Test Bank

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Methods

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

TB_01_01_An Introduction to Human Development_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

The field of __________________ is the scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion, and personality.

A) biology

B) psychology

C) human development

D) sociology

Answer: C

Page Ref: 2

Level: 1-Easy

Topic: An Introduction to Human Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_02_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

The Christian doctrine of ________ is the basis for the theory that human development occurs as a result of how well or how poorly someone does at overcoming their innately sinful nature.

A) original sin

B) blank slate

C) behaviorism

D) innate goodness

Answer: A

Page Ref: 3

Level: 1-Easy

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_03_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following believed that humans are selfish by nature and must seek spiritual rebirth through religious training?

A) St. Jean Rousseau

B) Augustine

C) John Locke

D) St. Mary

Answer: B

Page Ref: 3

Level: 1-Easy

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_04_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

Who was the philosopher who believed that children are born with a mind that is a blank slate?

A) John Luc

B) Charles Darwin

C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau

D) John Locke

Answer: D

Page Ref: 3

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_05_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

The ideas of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau would suggest that the basis for human development is

A) a result of the struggle between an individual’s original sin nature and the Holy Spirit.

B) an individual’s response to external, environmental influences.

C) empiricism.

D) an individual’s effort to overcome his or her inborn potential.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 3

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_06_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

As a developmental psychologist, I believe that humans possess no inborn abilities and that a child’s parents can mold them into whatever they want them to be. Which of the following would best describe my beliefs?

A) Empiricism

B) Innate goodness

C) Original sin

D) Darwinism

Answer: A

Page Ref: 3

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_07_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

The idea that the earth contains a wide variety of life forms, and that humans have developed as a result of the interaction of heredity and environment, was proposed by

A) John Locke.

B) Charles Darwin.

C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

D) John Hall.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 3

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts


LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_08_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following assertions regarding lifespan development can be attributed to both G. Stanley Hall and Charles Darwin?

A) Humans evolved from other animals.

B) Biology dictates human personality.

C) Environment dictates healthy development.

D) Norms should be identified for each developmental stage.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 3

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_09_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

What is the term that Arnold Gesell used to describe genetically programmed sequential patterns of change such as puberty or menopause?

A) Maturation

B) Growth

C) Social clock

D) Age norms

Answer: A

Page Ref: 3

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_10_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 2.4

What term is used to describe standardized tests that compare an individual child’s score to the average score of others her age?

A) Empirical tests

B) Norm-referenced tests

C) Content-normed tests

D) Normative metric tests

Answer: B

Page Ref: 3

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_11_ The Lifespan Perspective_LO 1.2_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following best describes your text’s approach to human development?

A) Human development begins at conception and continues throughout the lifespan.

B) Human development begins at birth and becomes relatively stable by adolescence.

C) Human development begins slowly at birth and accelerates as we age.

D) Human development begins with the onset of puberty.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 4

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.2: What is the lifespan perspective?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_12_The Lifespan Perspective_LO 1.2_APA LO 1.2

If you are born in the 21st century, which of the following statements might apply to you?

A) You may well live to be 100 years old.

B) You are likely to live 30 or more years longer than your parents.

C) If you are the average person, you will live to be 76 years old.

D) Your life expectancy will likely be double that of your grandparents.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 4

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.2: What is the lifespan perspective?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_13_The Lifespan Perspective_LO 1.2_APA LO 1.2

Because of our increasing lifespan, theorists have to include many types of information gathering to complete their research. Which of the following is one of the key elements emphasized in the newer approaches to lifespan development?

A) The unidimensional nature of development

B) Interdisciplinary research

C) Extra-generational implications

D) Rigidity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 4

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.2: What is the lifespan perspective?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_14_The Lifespan Perspective_LO 1.2_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following theorists is known for his emphasis on the positive aspects of aging?

A) John Locke

B) Paul Baltes

C) Jean Piaget

D) Sigmund Freud

Answer: B

Page Ref: 4

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.2: What is the lifespan perspective?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_15_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

What term is used to describe changes in size, shape, and characteristics of the body?

A) Psychological domain

B) Physical domain

C) Cognitive domain

D) Social domain

Answer: B

Page Ref: 4

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_16_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

What term is used to describe changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills?

A) Psychological domain

B) Physical domain

C) Cognitive domain

D) Social domain

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_17_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

What term is used to describe changes in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others?

A) Psychological domain

B) Physical domain

C) Cognitive domain

D) Social domain

Answer: D

Page Ref: 5

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_18_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

Michael, age 16, has recently gained a considerable amount of weight but has not grown any taller. Developmentalists would suggest that there is a problem in which of the following domains of developmental psychology?

A) Physical

B) Cultural

C) Cognitive

D) Social

Answer: A

Page Ref: 4

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_19_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

Which domain of developmental psychology examines interactions with others?

A) Biological

B) Cultural

C) Social

D) Psychological

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_20_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

Stella, age 12, is in the 6th grade but still reads at a 3rd grade level. Developmentalists would suggest that there is a problem in which domain of development?

A) Physical

B) Cultural

C) Cognitive

D) Social

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_21_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

The three broad categories that are used to classify changes over the lifespan are called

A) domains of development.

B) domains of change models.

C) evolutionary stages.

D) psychosocial domains.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 4

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_22_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

Periods of development describe which aspect of developmental theories?

A) Age-related changes

B) Domain-related changes

C) Biological changes

D) Prenatal changes

Answer: A

Page Ref: 5

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_23_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

Not all cultures define the boundaries of adolescence in the same way. For example, if you grew up in Great Britain, you could do which of the following?

A) Buy alcohol at any age

B) Be unable to drive until the age of 21

C) Join the military at the age of 16

D) Be able to vote at age 15

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_24_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

According to your text, when does middle childhood occur?

A) Once a child begins walking

B) Once a child begins talking

C) Once a child enters school

D) Once a child begins puberty

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_25_Nature versus Nurture_LO 1.4_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following are central to the nature-nurture controversy?

A) Environmental continuity and psychological comfort

B) Change triggered by social processes or change caused by cultural influences

C) Inborn biases and genetic predispositions

D) Biological processes and experiential factors

Answer: D

Page Ref: 6

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_26_Nature versus Nurture_LO 1.4_APA LO 1.2

Juanita’s father died when she was just a baby, but her family insists that she not only looks like him, she acts like him as well. This might indicate that which of the following had a large impact on her development?

A) Nature

B) Environment

C) Nurture

D) Innate goodness

Answer: A

Page Ref: 6

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_27_Nature versus Nurture_LO 1.4_APA LO 1.2

Developmental psychologists have observed that babies seem to be born predisposed to respond to people in certain ways, such as crying or smiling, in order to elicit attention from a caregiver. Psychologists call these inherent tendencies

A) cultural biases.

B) maturational patterns.

C) nature and nurture tensions.

D) inborn biases.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 6

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_28_Nature versus Nurture_LO 1.4_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following is an example from your text of an inborn bias?

A) The fact that all male infants show a propensity toward aggression and female infants are more passive.

B) The fact that there are more blue-eyed children in the United States than brown-eyed children.

C) The fact that, universally, children’s speech begins with single words before proceeding onto sentences.

D) The fact that, universally, all children learn to crawl before they learn to walk.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 6

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_29_Nature versus Nurture_LO 1.4_APA LO 1.2

“Mom, he’s looking at me! Make him stop!” These remarks imply that the very act of being looked at is offensive to this child. Mom, on the other hand, doesn’t see the problem. This typical family dilemma illustrates

A) sibling rivalry.

B) nature versus nurture.

C) an issue of cognitive development.

D) internal models of experience.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 7

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_30_Continuity versus Discontinuity_LO 1.5_APA LO 2.4

Qualitative is to quantitative as

A) production is to comprehension.

B) specific is to individual.

C) continuous is to discontinuous.

D) discontinuous is to continuous.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 7

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Continuity versus Discontinuity

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.5: What is the continuity-discontinuity debate?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_31_Continuity versus Discontinuity_LO 1.5_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following terms best describes a change in amount?

A) Qualitative change

B) Quantitative change

C) Significant change

D) Metric change

Answer: B

Page Ref: 7

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Continuity versus Discontinuity

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.5: What is the continuity-discontinuity debate?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_32_Continuity versus Discontinuity_LO 1.5_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following terms best describes a change in kind or type?

A) Qualitative change

B) Quantitative change

C) Significant change

D) Metric change

Answer: A

Page Ref: 7

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Continuity versus Discontinuity

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.5: What is the continuity-discontinuity debate?

APA LO: 2.4

TB_01_33_Continuity versus Discontinuity_LO 1.5_APA LO 2.4

If puberty begins for girls with the onset of menstruation, puberty could be considered a matter of

A) discontinuity.

B) continuity.

C) quantitative development.

D) ecological development.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 7

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Continuity versus Discontinuity

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.5: What is the continuity-discontinuity debate?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_34_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following is an example of a normative age-graded change?

A) You have blue eyes even though both of your parents have brown eyes.

B) You are taller now than when you were two years old.

C) You moved to the United States when you were a teen and learned to speak English.

D) You learned to walk before you learned to crawl.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 7

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_35_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Our sense of “the right time” to go to college, marry, have children, or retire is determined by our

A) biological clock.

B) intuition.

C) social clock.

D) cultural and cohort continuity.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_36_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Roberta married for the first time at age 39, and at age 40 she is pregnant for the first time. She is now considering starting college to become a computer systems engineer. When Roberta laughingly tells her friends, “I have never done anything when I was supposed to!” what is she referring to?

A) Her social clock

B) Her biological clock

C) Her psychological clock

D) A critical period

Answer: A

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know


LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_37_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

What is the term for a general negative attitude about aging, typified by the belief that older persons are incompetent or unable to complete required job functions?

A) The social clock

B) Dotage pathway

C) Ageism

D) Maturity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_38_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

What is the term for changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period?

A) Nonnormative change

B) General normative change

C) Normative age-graded change

D) Normative history-graded change

Answer: D

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_39_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

What is the term for changes that result from unique, unshared events?

A) Nonnormative change

B) General normative change

C) Normative age-graded change

D) Normative history-graded change

Answer: A

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_40_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

The basic idea that there may be significant periods in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence or absence of some particular kind of experience or influence is referred to as a

A) cohort influence.

B) critical period.

C) collectivist cultural influence.

D) timing influence.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_41_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Humans learn languages best in their childhood. In fact, some research indicates that if a child doesn’t learn to speak a formal language before the age of 6, they may never learn to speak well at all. This would best illustrate which of the following?

A) Critical period

B) Normative age graded changes

C) Individual differences

D) Cultural specificity

Answer: A

Page Ref: 8

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_42_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following best defines the sensitive period?

A) A time of psychological fragility, usually due to some type of loss such as the death of a spouse, termination of employment, deterioration due to aging, etc.

B) The period of time during which developmental norms for physical development are reached or achieved.

C) A specific period in development when an organism is particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence.

D) The time when the tension between nature and nurture is resolved in an organism’s development.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_43_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following is the best example of an “off-time” event that could have negative effects upon an individual’s development?

A) The deaths of elderly parents

B) Being divorced at the age of 25

C) The death of one’s spouse at the age of 30

D) Experiencing a life-threatening illness at the age of 60

Answer: C

Page Ref: 8

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_44_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Adults in London, England, who were teenagers living there during the bombings of World War II, all report that their lives were changed by those events. This exemplifies which of the following?

A) Normative age-graded changes

B) Normative critical periods

C) Normative history-graded changes

D) Non-normative life events

Answer: C

Page Ref: 8

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_45_Research Report_LO 1.7_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following is a finding of Glen Elder, et al., on individuals who grew up during the Great Depression?

A) The cohort born in 1920 suffered more than the cohort born in 1928.

B) Teenage girls were more likely than teenage boys to be forced into the work place prematurely because of economic hardship.

C) Teenagers whose families experienced severe economic difficulty assumed adult responsibility prematurely.

D) The adolescents who were forced prematurely into the work force were better adjusted as adults.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 9

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Research Report

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.7: How does consideration of the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists’ understanding of human development?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_46_Contexts of Development_LO 1.7_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following developmental outcomes would be illustrative of the concept of vulnerability?

A) Very low IQ scores are more common among children who were born with a low birth weight and who are reared in highly stressed, uninvolved families.

B) Normal birth weight infants born into upper socioeconomic status families invariably have superior levels of intelligence.

C) Children born into caring, facilitative families rarely have sufficient protective factors to overcome or offset all vulnerabilities that might potentially affect their development.

D) Positive developmental outcome is possible only for children with few vulnerabilities and many protective factors.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 9

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Contexts of Development

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.7: How does consideration of the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists’ understanding of human development?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_47_Contexts of Development_LO 1.7_APA LO 1.2

Which of the following best defines a system of meanings and customs shared by an identifiable group and transmitted across generations?

A) Age strata

B) Cohort

C) Collective identity

D) Culture

Answer: D

Page Ref: 10

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Contexts of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.7: How does consideration of the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists’ understanding of human development?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_48_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following best describes the goals of developmental science?

A) To describe, explain, predict, and influence development

B) To understand and explain social norms

C) To study cohort effects across cultures

D) To explain, record, and influence human differences

Answer: A

Page Ref: 11

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_49_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

Sets of statements that propose general principles to explain development are known as

A) cross-sectional designs.

B) hypotheses.

C) theories.

D) constructs.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 11

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_50_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

Predictions that can be tested in an effort to explain human development are known as

A) theories.

B) hypotheses.

C) experiments.

D) constructs.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 11

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Remember the Facts


LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_51_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following statements is the BEST example of a hypothesis about human development?

A) Cross-cultural studies have determined that human breast milk provides the ideal nutrition for infant brain development.

B) Human breast milk contains nutrients that are essential for the formation of neurons and synapses in an infant’s developing brain.

C) Because human breast milk is a superior form of nutrition for infants, all newly-delivered women should be encouraged to breast feed their infants.

D) If breast milk is a superior supplement for infant brain development, children who were breast-fed as infants should perform better on psychological tests than children who were not breast fed.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 11

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_52_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

Of the following, which is the BEST example of naturalistic observation?

A) The school psychologist has administered aptitude tests to the sophomore class of Martin Luther King, Jr. High School.

B) A researcher interested in the effects of caffeine upon learning provides high-caffeine drinks to an experimental group who are being taught a complicated game and provides caffeine-free drinks to a control group who are being taught the same game.

C) A serial killer is subjected to a battery of psychological exams and intensive interviews in an effort to determine the factors that influenced his developmental pathway to homicidal behavior.

D) Researchers interested in children’s gender-related interactions videotape children while they are playing during recess and while they are engaged in cooperative learning assignments in their classrooms.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 12

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_53_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

The Maple Leaf Elementary School counselor, social worker, and the parents of eight-year-old Jimmy Jackson are working as a cooperative team to determine why Jimmy exhibits a pattern of highly aggressive behavior toward his peers and teachers. Jimmy’s behavior has been extensively observed, he has been subjected to a battery of psychological tests, and his parents have been interviewed. This in-depth examination of Jimmy Jackson is an example of

A) an ethnograph.

B) naturalistic observation.

C) a correlational study.

D) a case study.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 12

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know


LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_54_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

How does observation in the laboratory differ from naturalistic observation?

A) There is no difference. The two terms are synonymous.

B) The researcher has more control over variables if they choose the natural environment carefully.

C) The researcher in a laboratory setting has some level of control over the variables that might influence the participants’ behavior.

D) Laboratory observation is considered experimentation, while naturalistic observation is a descriptive method of research.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 12

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_55_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

What is the term for the research method in which data is collected through participant responses to questions?

A) Experimental study

B) Correlational study

C) Survey

D) Case study

Answer: C

Page Ref: 13

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_56_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following is a true statement about correlations?

A) A correlation of zero indicates a strong relationship between two variables.

B) A correlation of –1.00 indicates a weak relationship between two variables.

C) A correlation of +1.00 provides clear evidence that one variable has a causative effect upon the other.

D) Correlations can range from –1.00 to +1.00 and describe the strength of a relationship between two variables.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_57_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

Researchers have found that children born to mothers who smoke during and after pregnancy are more likely to develop respiratory illness. This is an example of which of the following?

A) A negative correlation

B) An experimental finding

C) A strong correlation

D) A positive correlation

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_58_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

You are a taking part in a survey that asks about your attitudes toward the physical punishment of children. Even though you believe that spanking is sometimes necessary, you answer that you are opposed to any sort of physical punishment. Which of the following terms best describes why you answered the way that you did?

A) Social desirability

B) Experimenter bias

C) Randomness

D) Sample representation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 13

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_59_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following is a key feature of an experimental study?

A) Controls for cohort effects

B) Nonrandom assignment

C) Absence of a control group

D) An independent variable

Answer: D

Page Ref: 14

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_60_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

An experiment is designed to study the effects of long lectures on the sleeping behavior of college students. In such a study, the dependent variable is

A) the sleeping behavior of college students.

B) long lectures.

C) the length of time a lecture runs.

D) college students.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 14

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4


TB_01_61_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

Researchers designed an experiment to study the effects of a professor’s sense of humor on enrollment numbers. What is the independent variable in this study?

A) The college professor

B) The college professor’s sense of humor

C) Students considering attending college

D) The number of students who enroll

Answer: B

Page Ref: 14

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_62_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

A new medicine for headaches is in clinical trials. The patients who are receiving this new drug are members of which group?

A) The placebo group

B) The control group

C) The experimental group

D) The independent group

Answer: C

Page Ref: 14

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_63_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

In an experiment, what do we call the group of participants who receive a neutral treatment?

A) Independent variable

B) Control group

C) Experimental group

D) Dependent variable

Answer: B

Page Ref: 14

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_64_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

A researcher wants to study developing human fetuses that have already been exposed to radiation. Which type of research would be best suited for this?

A) Experimentation

B) Quasi-experimentation

C) Case study

D) Naturalistic observation

Answer: B

Page Ref: 15

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_65_Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes_LO 1.11_APA LO 2.4

In which of the following research designs are subjects of different ages studied at the same time and the results compared?

A) Longitudinal

B) Cross-sectional

C) Sequential

D) Cross-cultural

Answer: B

Page Ref: 15

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.11: What are the pros and cons of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_66_Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes_LO 1.11_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following is the best example of a cross-sectional research study?

A) Dr. Huang assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in September 2006.

B) Dr. Sanchez assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in December 2006, and the same children will be tested again in 2008, 2010, and 2012.

C) Each year at the beginning of the school year, the five children of the Jones family visit their family doctor to have physical exams.

D) Each year the five-year-olds of Washington, D.C., are given number and letter proficiency exams before they begin kindergarten.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 15

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.11: What are the pros and cons of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_67_Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes_LO 1.11_APA LO 2.4

Cohort effects are most commonly associated with which type of research design?

A) Cross-sectional designs

B) Longitudinal designs

C) Sequential designs

D) Quasi-experimental designs

Answer: A

Page Ref: 15

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.11: What are the pros and cons of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs?

APA LO: 2.4


TB_01_68_Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes_LO 1.11_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following is the best example of a longitudinal research study?

A) Dr. Ngo studied four groups of children aged six, eight, ten, and twelve to determine how therapy helps children cope with their parents’ divorce.

B) To determine how alcohol affects the retention of information, researchers monitored subjects’ ingestion of alcohol while the subjects were learning to play a complicated game.

C) Dr. Cisneros initially studied a group of recently-divorced 40-year-olds to evaluate their communication skills, and continued to study their interpersonal relationships for 30 years.

D) In December 2004, researchers surveyed shoppers at local malls to assess peoples’ attitudes about retirement and their plans for post-retirement activities.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 16

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.11: What are the pros and cons of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_69_Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes_LO 1.11_APA LO 2.4

Which type of research design is intended to avoid the shortcomings of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by combining features of both?

A) Sequential design

B) Cross-longitudinal design             

C) Longitudinal case study

D) Correlational study

Answer: A

Page Ref: 16

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.11: What are the pros and cons of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_70_Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes_LO 1.11_APA LO 2.4

Your text uses an example of a sequential study in which “Baby Boomer” women were the participants. Which of the following was a finding of that study?

A) The relationship between age and reported frequency of marital conflict was the same across cohorts.

B) The different cohorts’ self-perceptions of femininity declined in parallel fashion. This represents a true developmental change.

C) Because this was a sequential study, no reliable findings can be reported.

D) The relationship between age and reported frequency of marital conflict was different in each cohort.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 17

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Designs for Studying Age-Related Changes

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.11: What are the pros and cons of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs?

APA LO: 2.4


TB_01_71_Cross-Cultural Research_LO 1.12_APA LO 2.4

Which is the best term to describe when a researcher lives in a particular culture for an extended time in order to gain a detailed understanding and description of the culture?

A) Ethnography

B) Sociology

C) Sociobiology

D) Ethnopsychology

Answer: A

Page Ref: 17

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Cross-Cultural Research

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.12: Why is cross-cultural research important to the study of human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_72_Cross-Cultural Research_LO 1.12_APA LO 2.4

The two primary goals of cross-cultural research are to identify universal changes that cross cultures and to

A) demonstrate cultural diversity in the social sciences.

B) nurture more culturally sensitive attitudes.

C) gain information that will help improve people’s lives.

D) determine the effects that one culture has upon another.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Cross-Cultural Research

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.12: Why is cross-cultural research important to the study of human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_73_Research Ethics_LO 1.13_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following statements is true about research ethics?

A) Research ethics apply to human research but not animal research.

B) Research ethics apply to animal research but not human research.

C) Research ethics apply to both human and animal research.

D) Research ethics are another word for laws.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Research Ethics

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.13: What are the ethical standards that developmental researchers must follow?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_74_Research Ethics_LO 1.13_APA LO 2.4

In survey research, it is very important that the participants reflect the characteristics of the whole group of people being studied. To which characteristic of the sample are we referring?

A) Similarity

B) Bias

C) Representativeness

D) Social desirability

Answer: C

Page Ref: 18

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Research Ethics

Skill: Remember the Facts


LO 1.13: What are the ethical standards that developmental researchers must follow?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_75_Research Ethics_LO 1.13_APA LO 2.4

Participants in research projects must be told of any harmful effects or possible risks associated with the research in advance of their participation. What is this ethical responsibility called?

A) Deception

B) Protection from harm

C) Knowledge of results

D) Informed consent

Answer: D

Page Ref: 18

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Research Ethics

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.13: What are the ethical standards that developmental researchers must follow?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_76_Research Ethics_LO 1.13_APA LO 2.4

Darius participated in a study of the effects of alcohol on long-term memory. More than a year after his participation ended, he received a newsletter telling him all about the results of the study. The researchers were following the ethical guideline that mandates

A) knowledge of results.

B) informed consent.

C) full disclosure.

D) protection against harm.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 19

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Research Ethics

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.13: What are the ethical standards that developmental researchers must follow?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_77_Research Ethics_LO 1.13_APA LO 2.4

Which of the following best explains the protection from harm aspect of research ethics?

A) Absolutely no harm, neither permanent nor temporary, can come to the participants during the research.

B) As long as the harm is temporary and only lasts for the duration of the research, it is okay.

C) If temporary harm may be caused by the research, the researchers must provide a way to relieve that harm.

D) As long as the participants are informed of the possibility of harm before the research begins, no ethical violations are considered.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 18

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Research Ethics

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.13: What are the ethical standards that developmental researchers must follow?

APA LO: 2.4


TB_01_78_Summary_APA LO 1.3

After reading Chapter 1, which of the following should you be able to apply to your daily life?

A) You will be able to start your own research projects in developmental psychology once you have read Chapter 1.

B) You will have some tools to critically evaluate research and make an informed decision as to applying the research findings to your daily life.

C) You will be able to properly write a research report on your own.

D) You should always be skeptical of research and realize that most research is done with bias towards the desired results.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 19

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Summary

Skill: Apply What You Know

Objective: N/A

APA LO: 1.3

 


Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

TB_01_79_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

The Christian doctrine of original sin is often attributed to fourth-century philosopher _____________________.

Answer: Augustine of Hippo

Page Ref: 3

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_80_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

The ideas of the English philosopher John Locke would suggest that at birth human beings are ________ waiting to receive information.

Answer: blank slates

Page Ref: 3

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_81_The Lifespan Perspective_LO 1.2_APA LO 1.2

When we gather data from different sources of academia, we are taking a(n) ________ approach to research.

Answer: interdisciplinary

Page Ref: 4

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.2: What is the lifespan perspective?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_82_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

Celia has an outgoing, friendly personality, while her best friend Chester is shy and reserved. We are describing Celia and Chester through the ________ domain of development.

Answer: social

Page Ref: 5

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_83_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

As we age, the transition between stages of development becomes more ________ in terms of defining milestones.

Answer: arbitrary

Page Ref: 5

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_84_Nature versus Nurture_LO 1.4_APA LO 1.2

The internal model of experience assumes that events themselves are not as important in influencing development as are the individual’s ________ of those events.

Answer: perception

Page Ref: 7

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_85_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Normative ________ changes are universal, in that they apply to everyone at the same period of maturation.

Answer: age-graded

Page Ref: 7

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_86_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Your text suggests that the period from 6–12 months might be the sensitive period for ________.

Answer: parent-infant attachment

Page Ref: 8

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_87_Contexts of Development_LO 1.7_APA LO 1.2

Both of Asa’s parents, and all four of her grandparents, have heart disease. We might assume that Asa will be more ________ to heart problems than her cohorts.

Answer: vulnerable

Page Ref: 10

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Contexts of Development

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.7: How does consideration of the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists’ understanding of human development?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_88_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

A major difference between a theory and a hypothesis is that hypotheses are ________.

Answer: testable

Level: 3-Difficult

Page Ref: 11

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4


TB_01_89_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

The four goals of developmental psychology are to ________, ________, ________ and ________ human behavior.

Answer: describe; explain; predict; influence

Page Ref: 11

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_90_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

One major weakness of naturalistic observation is, according to your text, ________.

Answer: observer bias

Page Ref: 12

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_91_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

Correlational research does not allow us to show ________ relationships.

Answer: causal

Page Ref: 13

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_92_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

In an experiment, if participants have equal chances of being assigned to the different groups, we say that assignment was ________.

Answer: random

Page Ref: 14

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_93_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

A(n) _________ is a study that tests a causal hypothesis.

Answer: experiment

Page Ref: 14

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4


Short Answer Questions

 

TB_01_94_An Introduction to Human Development_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

How has the study of human development changed over the last two centuries?

Answer: Answers may include any of the following:

- innate goodness

- empiricism

- blank slate

- development continues throughout the lifespan and doesn’t end with childhood

- researchers have also come to realize that the processes of development are complex

- the scientific method was introduced into this time period

Page Ref: 3–6

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: An Introduction to Human Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_95_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

What contributions did Arnold Gesell make to the study of human development?             

Answer: maturation; genetically programmed patterns of change; developed “norms” for children; observational techniques

Page Ref: 3

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_96_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

List the three domains of development.

Answer: cognitive; social; physical

Page Ref: 4–5

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_97_The Domains and Periods of Development_LO 1.3_APA LO 1.2

Identify the periods of development.

Answer: prenatal; infancy; early childhood; middle childhood; adolescence; early adulthood (or emerging adulthood); middle adulthood; late adulthood

Page Ref: 5

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Domains and Periods of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.3: What major domains and periods do developmental scientists use to organize their discussions of the human lifespan?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_98_Nature versus Nurture, LO 1.4, APA LO 1.2

All children begin to smile and coo at approximately the same age. Identify at least two key concepts that you might use to explain these behaviors.

Answer: nature-nurture; inborn biases; predispositions; domains; periods of development

Page Ref: 6–7

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_99_Continuity versus Discontinuity_LO 1.5_APA LO 2.4

Briefly explain how quantitative change and qualitative change relate to continuity and discontinuity.

Answer: continuity = quantitative; discontinuity = qualitative

Page Ref: 7

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Continuity versus Discontinuity

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.5: What is the continuity-discontinuity debate?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_100_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Give at least three examples of normative age-graded changes.

Answer: anything that applies to biological maturation can be used to answer this question: walking, puberty, fertility, loss of bone density, graying hair, etc.

Page Ref: 7–8

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_101_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Joshua entered puberty much later than his peers. What terms might you use to describe how this could affect Joshua’s social development?

Answer: sensitive period; on-time events; off-time events

Page Ref: 8

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_102_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

Give at least three examples of normative history-graded influences.

Answer: anything that applies to historical events common to cohorts; e.g., changes that resulted from experiencing the attacks of 9/11/2001; those who lived during World War II; those who survived Hurricane Katrina, etc.

Page Ref: 8

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_103_Contexts of Development_LO 1.7_APA LO 1.2

Briefly define the terms vulnerability and resilience.

Answer: vulnerability = those inborn characteristics which predispose a person to abnormal events or processes;

resilience = those inborn characteristics which predispose a person to overcome abnormal or adverse events

Page Ref: 9–10

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Contexts of Development

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.7: How does consideration of the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists’ understanding of human development?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_104_Contexts of Development_LO 1.7_APA LO 1.2

Briefly define the term culture.

Answer: no universal definition; typically includes common meanings; customs; values attitudes; goals etc.

Page Ref: 10

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Contexts of Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.7: How does consideration of the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists’ understanding of human development?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_105_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

What are the goals of developmental science?

Answer: describe; explain, predict; also the terms theories and hypotheses may be used here

Page Ref: 11

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_106_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

In research, what is the difference between a population and a sample?

Answer: population is the entire group of interest; sample is a representative subset of the entire group

Page Ref: 13

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_107_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

You are taking part in an experiment to test the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in treating anxiety. There are two groups: one group receives cognitive therapy; the other group meets weekly with a therapist who does not use cognitive therapy, but merely chats during the session. Using the terminology of research, identify each of the two types of groups.

Answer: experimental group; control group

Page Ref: 14

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4


TB_01_108_Research Ethics_LO 1.13_APA LO 2.4

Identify at least three of the ethical standards for research involving human participants.

Answer: protection from harm; confidentiality; informed consent; knowledge of results; appropriate use of deception

Page Ref: 18–19

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Research Ethics

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 2.4


Essay Questions

 

TB_01_109_Philosophical and Scientific Roots_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

Compare and contrast the philosophies of John Locke and Charles Darwin as they apply to developmental theory.

Answer: Locke proposed the concepts of blank slate and empiricism, and that children can be molded. Darwin proposed that environment and genetic processes interact to influence development. The answer should include some expansion on these concepts.

Page Ref: 3

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Philosophical and Scientific Roots

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_110_An Introduction to Human Development_LO 1.1_APA LO 1.2

Compare and contrast the views of at least three early researchers. Explain how you would reconcile these differing and sometimes conflicting views.

Answer: The answer will vary depending on which researchers and philosophers the student chooses. The student should demonstrate some understanding of taking an eclectic approach to explaining development and recognize that differing opinions are not always mutually exclusive of each other.

Page Ref: 3–5

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: An Introduction to Human Development

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.1: What ideas about development were proposed by early philosophers and scientists?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_111_Nature versus Nurture_LO 1.4_APA LO 1.2

Explain the concept of internal models of experience and give an example from your own experience.

Answer: The answer needs to explain the environmental influences of development AND the individual’s perception of these experiences. The example needs to demonstrate that the student can properly apply the nature-nurture concept.

Page Ref: 6–7

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Nature versus Nurture

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.4: How do developmentalists view the two sides of the nature-nurture debate?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_112_Three Kinds of Change_LO 1.6_APA LO 1.2

What is a critical period? What is a sensitive period? Give examples to illustrate your answers.

Answer: critical period = time during development when an organism is particularly susceptible to influences on specific developmental processes

sensitive period = influences which may lead to on- or off-time events

Page Ref: 8

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: Three Kinds of Change

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2


TB_01_113, Research Report, LO 1.6, APA LO 1.2

Briefly summarize the research carried out by Glen Elder and his colleagues on children in the Great Depression.

Answer: The answer should summarize the key points: cohorts in terms of year in which the subjects were born; teens versus young children; economic conditions and their effects on premature acceptance of adult responsibility.

Page Ref: 9

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: Research Report

Skill: Remember the Facts

LO 1.6: How do the three kinds of age-related change differ?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_114_Contexts of Development_LO 1.7_APA LO 1.2

Give an example of how context, vulnerability, and resilience may influence development.

Answer: The answer needs to demonstrate that vulnerability and resilience are generally inborn factors that may modify context effects and vice versa.

Level: 2-Medium

Page Ref: 9–10

Topic: Contexts of Development

Skill: Apply What You Know

LO 1.7: How does consideration of the contexts in which change occurs improve scientists’ understanding of human development?

APA LO: 1.2

 

TB_01_115_The Goals of Developmental Science_LO 1.8_APA LO 2.4

Explain the difference between a theory and a hypothesis. Give an example of each.

Answer: Theories are typically descriptive, educated guesses. Hypotheses are testable statements. The example needs to reflect an understanding of these differences.

Page Ref: 11

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: The Goals of Developmental Science

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.8: What are the goals of scientists who study human development?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_116_Descriptive Methods_LO 1.9_APA LO 2.4

You are reading a research report on the relationship between playing Mozart during pregnancy and a child’s future intelligence. The researchers report a correlation coefficient of +1.67. Explain what this means.

Answer: The answer must recognize that a correlation >1.0 is impossible. There may be some explanation of a positive correlation regarding the direction of the relationships between the variables.

Page Ref: 13

Level: 1-Easy      

Topic: Descriptive Methods

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.9: What descriptive methods do developmental scientists use?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_117_The Experimental Method_LO 1.10_APA LO 2.4

Write a hypothesis that will allow you to research the relationship between a pre-adolescent’s drug use and their propensity toward ADHD. Identify the independent and dependent variables in your study.

Answer: The statement has to be clearly testable, and a clear relationship between the independent variable (drug use) and the dependent variable (ADHD) must be stated.

Page Ref: 14

Level: 3-Difficult

Topic: The Experimental Method

Skill: Apply What You Know


LO 1.10: What is the primary advantage of the experimental method?

APA LO: 2.4

 

TB_01_118, No Easy Answers, LO 1.11, APA LO 2.4

Why do the authors say that whenever someone asks you about research conclusions, you should always begin your answer with “It depends...”?

Answer: The answer needs to include a discussion of the many variables in human research that cannot be controlled through experimentation. The student should also recognize that much of the research in developmental psychology uses descriptive, correlational, or quasi-experimental methods—none of which show causation.

Page Ref: 15

Level: 2-Medium

Topic: No Easy Answers

Skill: Understand the Concepts

LO 1.11: What are the pros and cons of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs?

APA LO: 2.4