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Test Bank for Lifespan Development in Context 1st Edition by Kuthers

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Test Bank for Lifespan Development in Context 1st Edition by Kuthers

Test Bank for Lifespan Development in Context 1st Edition by Kuthers

Chapter 1: Understanding Human Development: Approaches and Theories

Understanding Human Development: Approaches and Theories Biological Foundations and Prenatal Development Physical Development and Aging Brain Development, Sensation and Perception, and Motor Development Health Cognitive Change: Cognitive-Developmental and Sociocultural Approaches Cognitive Change: Information Processing Approach Intelligence Language Development Emotional Development Self, Identity, and Personality Moral Development Gender and Sexuality Social Relationships: Family and Peers School, Achievement, and Work Death and Dying

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. The ways in which people grow, change, and stay the same throughout their lives, from conception to death, is known as ______ development.

A. child

B. lifespan human

C. normative human

D. contemporary

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Lifespan Human Development?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

2. ______ is the most obvious indicator of development.

A. Change

B. Stability

C. Adulthood

D. Brain lateralization

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Lifespan Human Development?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

3. Throughout the lifespan, we change physically, cognitively, and psychosocially. This illustrates the notion that development is ______.

A. static

B. multidisciplinary

C. plastic

D. multidimensional

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Is Multidimensional

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

4. Dr. Yang studies cross-cultural differences in body maturation and growth, including differences in body size, proportion, appearance, health, and perceptual abilities. Dr. Yang is interested in ______ development.

A. physical

B. cognitive

C. psychosocial

D. interdisciplinary

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Is Multidimensional

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

5. ______ development includes the maturation of our thought processes and the tools that we use to obtain knowledge, become aware of the world around us, and solve problems.

A. Physical

B. Cognitive

C. Psychosocial

D. Lifespan

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Is Multidimensional

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

6. Changes in personality, emotions, views of oneself, social skills, and interpersonal relationships with family and friends are called ______ development.

A. physical

B. cognitive

C. socioemotional

D. lifespan

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Is Multidimensional

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

7. As baby Sanjay’s physical development improves, he is able to crawl around and explore his environment. This advances his cognitive development, as he learns about the size and shape of objects, as well as how they function. His newfound crawling skills also contribute to changes in Sanjay’s psychosocial development. For example, he may experience anger when he picks up a breakable object, only to have one of his parents take it away. In addition, Sanjay experiences happiness when his parents encourage his motor efforts and frustration when they remove him from an unsafe area, such as the stairs. This example shows that the three areas of development ______.

A. confuse the infant

B. are independent

C. follow a single course

D. overlap and interact

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Is Multidimensional

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

8. Research illustrates that development consists of both gains and losses, as well as growth and decline, throughout the lifespan. This means that development is ______.

A. multidimensional

B. plastic

C. multidisciplinary

D. multidirectional

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Is Multidirectional

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

9. Allison is approaching her 60th birthday. She realizes that her eyesight and hearing are not as good as they used to be, and when visiting her daughter in graduate school, climbing the stairs to the fourth floor has become more difficult. However, Allison has also become more patient over the years, is better at solving difficult problems, and has a more confident and favorable view of herself than she had in her 20s and 30s. This example shows that development is ______.

A. multidimensional

B. multidisciplinary

C. multidirectional

D. plastic

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Is Multidirectional

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

10. Because development is multidirectional, at all ages, individuals can compensate for losses by:

A. accepting the inevitability of growing older.

B. improving existing skills and developing new ones.

C. seeking out developmentally supportive contexts.

D. avoiding talking about them.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Is Multidirectional

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

11. The malleability or changeability of development is called ______.

A. plasticity

B. neuroscience

C. lateralization

D. specialization

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Is Plastic

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

12. Following a stroke that affected his balance and muscle strength, Jose participated in 3 months of physical therapy. Today, Jose feels as strong as he did before the stroke and walks at least 10 miles a week for exercise. Jose’s ability to overcome his physical limitations after his stroke is an example of:

A. lateralization.

B. plasticity.

C. neuroscience.

D. specialization.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Is Plastic

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

13. According to research, which individual will likely show the greatest amount of plasticity following a brain injury?

A. Janessa, who is 6

B. Derick, who is 25

C. Barb, who is 48

D. Able, who is 70

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Is Plastic

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

14. ______ refers to where and when a person develops.

A. Plasticity

B. Exosystem

C. Microsystem

D. Context

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Is Influenced by Multiple Contexts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

15. Millennial, people who reached adulthood around the year 2000, are a generation born around the same time. Millennials are an example of a ______.

A. subculture

B. developmental domain

C. cultural group

D. cohort

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Is Influenced by Multiple Contexts

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

16. Experts and professionals with a diverse range of expertise contribute to our understanding of lifespan human development. This indicates that developmental science is:

A. plastic.

B. multidisciplinary.

C. multidirectional.

D. multidimensional.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Developmental Science Is Multidisciplinary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

17. Bailey is a graduate student in clinical psychology. As part of her training, Bailey works with children and families affected by autism. Each week, Bailey participates in a team meeting that consists of a school psychologist, social worker, speech and language therapist, and nursing students. The group discusses the various families with whom they work, as well as progress with individual clients. This example illustrates the importance of a ______ approach to understanding how people grow, think, and interact with their world.

A. multidisciplinary

B. contextual

C. cultural

D. multidirectional

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Developmental Science Is Multidisciplinary

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

18. ______ development is characterized by slow and gradual change, whereas ______ development is characterized by abrupt change.

A. Continuous; discontinuous

B. Discontinuous; continuous

C. Multidimensional; multidirectional

D. Multidirectional; multidimensional

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Continuities and Discontinuities in Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

19. Contemporary developmental scientists agree that development:

A. cannot be characterized by either continuity or discontinuity.

B. is primarily characterized by discontinuity.

C. is primarily characterized by continuity.

D. includes both continuity and discontinuity.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Continuities and Discontinuities in Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

20. Baby Li is participating in a research study in which his physical growth is measured once a day. Li’s parents were surprised to find out that monthly measurements of height showed gradual increases, but daily measurements revealed growth spurts that sometimes lasted up to 24 hours. This example supports the assertion that physical growth is:

A. primarily characterized by continuity.

B. primarily characterized by discontinuity.

C. both continuous and discontinuous.

D. characterized neither by continuity nor discontinuity.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Continuities and Discontinuities in Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

21. Which is an example of discontinuous change?

A. A middle-aged adult losing muscle and strength

B. An adolescent experiencing puberty

C. A small child expanding her vocabulary

D. A young adult learning a new trade

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Continuities and Discontinuities in Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

22. People can take a(n) ______ role in their development by interacting and influencing the world around them.

A. continuous

B. discontinuous

C. active

D. passive

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Individuals Are Active in Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

23. Consider a person who is reluctant to engage with other people, asks few questions, and rarely interacts with his environment. What type of role is he taking in his development?

A. Active

B. Passive

C. Continuous

D. Discontinuous

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Individuals Are Active in Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

24. Today, most developmental scientists believe that people are ______ their own development.

A. active contributors to

B. unaware of

C. often confused by

D. indifferent toward

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Individuals Are Active in Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

25. Neva believes that most people are mainly products of their environment. For example, if a child grows up in a warm, stimulating home, he or she will become a successful adult. If the same child grows up in poverty and experiences ineffective child-rearing, he or she will likely repeat those patterns in adulthood. Is Neva’s belief correct?

A. Yes, most researchers believe that children are passive recipients of their environment and rarely contribute to their own development.

B. Yes, parenting and socioeconomic status play a greater role in development than children’s attempts to engage the world around them.

C. No, although people are influenced by the physical and psychosocial contexts in which they live, they also take an active role in shaping who they become.

D. No, physical and psychosocial contexts play only a minor role in long-term developmental outcomes.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Individuals Are Active in Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

26. At the beginning of her first human development course in college, Vi wondered, “Am I the person I am today because of heredity, or did I become who I am because of my environment?” Vi’s question reflects the ______ issue in lifespan development.

A. psychoanalytic–behaviorist

B. active–passive

C. continuities–discontinuities

D. nature–nurture

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Nature and Nurture Influence Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

27. Explanations that rely on ______ indicate that inborn genetic endowments or heredity, maturational processes, and evolution are causes of developmental change. In contrast, explanations that point to ______ suggest that individuals are molded by the physical and social environment in which they are raised.

A. nurture; nature

B. nature; nurture

C. continuities; discontinuities

D. discontinuities; continuities

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Nature and Nurture Influence Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

28. Regarding the nature–nurture issue, today’s developmental scientists agree that ______.

A. nature is more influential than nurture

B. nurture is more influential than nature

C. both nature and nurture are important

D. neither nature nor nurture are significant

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Nature and Nurture Influence Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

29. A ______ is a way of organizing a set of observations or facts into comprehensive explanations of how something works.

A. theory

B. hypothesis

C. cohort

D. research question

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theoretical Perspectives on Human Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

30. Scientists generate ______ or proposed explanations for a given phenomenon that can be tested by research.

A. theories

B. hypotheses

C. cohorts

D. subjective opinions

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theoretical Perspectives on Human Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

31. Professor Deloney is teaching a research methods class. In his lecture on how theories are generated, he points out that a good theory is ______ and can potentially be refuted.

A. flawless

B. similar to a hypothesis

C. subjective

D. falsifiable

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Theoretical Perspectives on Human Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

32. ______ theories describe development and behavior as a result of the interplay of inner drives, memories, and conflicts of which we are unaware and cannot control.

A. Psychoanalytic

B. Behaviorist

C. Social learning

D. Information processing

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychoanalytic Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

33. Which theorists is credited as the father of the psychoanalytic perspective?

A. Lev Vygotsky

B. Erik Erikson

C. Sigmund Freud

D. Charles Darwin

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

34. According to Freud’s theory, humans progress through a series of ______ or periods in which unconscious drives are focused on different parts of the body, making stimulation to those parts a source of pleasure.

A. emotional conflicts

B. psychosexual stages

C. social crises

D. personal dilemmas

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

35. One of the most important criticisms of Freud’s theory is that it:

A. overlooks the importance of the early parent–child relationship.

B. emphasizes nature over nurture.

C. focuses primarily on early child development.

D. cannot be directly tested.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

36. Erikson focused on the role of ______ in shaping development.

A. the nuclear and extended family

B. the social world, society, and culture

C. unconscious motivations and drives

D. gender and sexuality

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

37. Erikson expanded upon Freud’s theory and proposed ______ stages of psychosocial development that include changes in how people understand and interact with others, as well as changes in how they understand themselves and their roles as members of society.

A. 4

B. 6

C. 8

D. 10

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

38. In each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages, an individual faces a(n) ______ that must be resolved.

A. crisis or conflict

B. unconscious obstacle

C. significant life stressor

D. moral dilemma

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

39. ______ theory is regarded as one of the first lifespan views of development.

A. Freud’s

B. Erikson’s

C. Skinner’s

D. Vygotsky’s

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

40. ______, which emerged as an alternative to psychoanalytic theories, focuses only on behavior that can be observed and objectively verified.

A. Behaviorism

B. Cognitive-developmental theory

C. Sociocultural theory

D. Ethology

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behaviorist and Social Learning Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

41. Behaviorist theory is also known as ______ theory.

A. sociocultural

B. cognitive-developmental

C. evolutionary developmental

D. learning

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behaviorist and Social Learning Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

42. Each time Isabella sits down to feed her baby a bottle, she gently strokes the baby’s head. One day, Isabella began stroking her daughter’s head and noticed that the baby started sucking, even though it wasn’t feeding time. The baby’s association between having her head stroked and the presentation of food is an example of ______.

A. operant conditioning

B. classical conditioning

C. reinforcement

D. social learning

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Classical Conditioning

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

43. ______ applies to physiological and emotional responses only.

A. Classical conditioning

B. Operant conditioning

C. Reinforcement

D. Punishment

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Classical Conditioning

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

44. Tara is a 4-year-old girl who is very polite. Ever since she was able to talk, her mother expected her to say please and thank you. When Tara would behave politely, her mother would praise her. Tara’s behavior was shaped through ______.

A. operant conditioning

B. classical conditioning

C. genetics

D. modeling

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Operant Conditioning

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

45. According to ______, observational learning is one of the most powerful ways in which we learn.

A. operant conditioning

B. social learning theory

C. the bioecological model

D. evolutionary theory

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Social Learning Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

46. According to the concept of ______, behavior is more likely to recur in the future if it is reinforced but less likely to recur if it is punished.

A. classical conditioning

B. operant conditioning

C. social learning

D. ethology

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Operant Conditioning

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

47. Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?

A. A dog is reprimanded each time he chews on the furniture.

B. A person automatically puts on a seatbelt when getting into a car.

C. A toddler receives a sticker each time she uses the toilet.

D. A cat hides every time the doorbell rings.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Operant Conditioning

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

48. According to ______ theory, people actively process information and their thoughts and feelings influence their behavior.

A. psychoanalytic

B. behaviorist

C. evolutionary developmental

D. social learning

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Social Learning Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

49. At preschool, Jace frequently watches Keagan hit other children and take their toys. Jace notices that each time Keagan engages in this behavior, the teacher makes him give the toy back and sit in a time out. Because Jace does not want to get in trouble with his teacher, he patiently waits his turn for toys. Jace is demonstrating the concept of ______.

A. observational learning

B. operant conditioning

C. negative reinforcement

D. reciprocal determinism

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Behaviorist and Social Learning Theories

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

50. Ten-month-old Tauji is a happy, laid-back baby. He often smiles and laughs and is rarely cranky unless he is hungry or tired. Due to his easy temperament, Tauji’s parents and other adults enjoy interacting with him. He receives frequent hugs and kisses which, in turn, results in more positive interactions. The interaction between Tauji’s behavior and the supportive environment in which he is being raised is an example of ______.

A. reciprocal determinism

B. operant conditioning

C. classical conditioning

D. reinforcement

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Social Learning Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

51. ______ founded the cognitive-developmental perspective on child development.

A. Albert Bandura

B. Jean Piaget

C. B.f. Skinner

D. Lev Vygotsky

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

52. According to Piaget, children and adults learn by interacting with their environments and organizing what they learn into ______.

A. stages

B. conceptual webs

C. cognitive schemas

D. categorical dimensions

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

53. ______ theory was the first to consider how infants and children think, as well as their active contributions to their own development.

A. Bandura’s

B. Piaget’s

C. Vygotsky’s

D. Bronfenbrenner’s

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

54. Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory?

A. Piaget underestimated children’s contributions to their own development.

B. Piaget assumed that all cognitive-developmental stages are universal.

C. Piaget focused too much on unconscious drives and motivations.

D. Piaget focused too heavily on emotional and social factors that influence development.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

55. According to ______ theory, the mind works in ways similar to a computer.

A. psychoanalytic

B. sociocultural

C. information processing

D. bioecological

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Information Processing Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

56. From an information processing perspective, development is ______ and entails changes in the efficiency and speed with which we think.

A. continuous

B. discontinuous

C. abrupt

D. irregular

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Information Processing Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

57. Which of the following is a criticism of the information-processing perspective?

A. It fails to explain age-related changes in thinking.

B. It does not take into consideration maturation of the brain and nervous system.

C. Computer models cannot capture the complexity of the human mind.

D. There is little empirical support for this theory.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Information Processing Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

58. The beliefs, values, customs, and skills of a group are referred to as ______.

A. microsystems

B. socialization

C. schemas

D. culture

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

59. ______ sociocultural theory focuses on how culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through social interaction.

A. Piaget’s

B. Vygotsky’s

C. Bronfenbrenner’s

D. Darwin’s

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

60. Professor Norris is interested in how children from different cultures acquire the cognitive skills necessary to be productive members of society. His research focuses on how adults and peers communicate culturally relevant knowledge, as well as the emphasis different cultures place on play and work. Professor Norris’s research is consistent with ______ theory.

A. Bronfenbrenner’s

B. Bandura’s

C. Piaget’s

D. Vygtosky’s

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

61. Both Piaget and Vygotsky emphasized that children ______.

A. primarily learn through reinforcement and punishment

B. are active in their own development

C. face crises or conflicts at each stage of development

D. process information much like a computer

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

62. Critics have argued that Vygotsky’s theory places too little emphasis on ______.

A. the role of context

B. cultural factors

C. genetic and biological factors

D. early socialization

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

63. According to ______ theory, development results from the ongoing interactions among biological, cognitive, and psychological changes within the individual and his or her changing context.

A. Piaget’s cognitive-developmental

B. Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological

C. information processing

D. evolutionary developmental

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

64. At the center of the bioecological model is the ______.

A. individual

B. family

C. community

D. cultural context

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

65. According to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model, your family, peers, and school represent your ______.

A. microsystem

B. mesosystem

C. macrosystem

D. exosystem

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

66. The ______ consists of relations and interactions among microsystems.

A. macrosystem

B. mesosystem

C. exosystem

D. chronosystem

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

67. Travis has worked for the same company for almost 10 years. He dislikes his boss, often works overtime without pay, and sees little opportunity for advancement. Travis’s work stress has started to affect his personal life. He frequently argues with his wife and has little patience for his 2-year-old son. Travis is easily irritated when his son whines or makes a mess, which creates even more stress in the household. According to Bronfenbrenner’s theory, the influence of Travis’s work stress on his son’s development falls within the ______.

A. microsystem

B. macrosystem

C. exosystem

D. chronosystem

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

68. In Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model, cultural values, legal and political practices, and other elements of the society at large fall within the ______.

A. microsystem

B. macrosystem

C. exosystem

D. mesosystem

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

69. The timing of important life events—such as marriage, birth of a child, starting a career, and retirement—fall within the ______.

A. microsystem

B. mesosystem

C. macrosystem

D. chronosystem

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

70. Which of the following best answers the question, “what is the purpose or adaptive value of infant–parent attachment?”

A. Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory

B. Behaviorism

C. Evolutionary developmental theory

D. The information processing perspective

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

71. The fact that humans, like many animal species, display biologically preprogrammed behaviors that have survival value and promote development provides support for ______ theory.

A. sociocultural

B. bioecological

C. ethological

D. social learning

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

72. Dr. Stein is an expert in human development. When conducting research, Dr. Stein will utilize ______.

A. subjective observation techniques

B. the scientific method

C. tools and resources that have never been used before

D. hypothetical models of human behavior

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

73. The second step of the scientific method is ______.

A. identifying the research question

B. formulating a hypothesis

C. gathering information to address the research question

D. interpreting and summarizing information

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

74. Scientists use the term ______ to refer to the information that they collect when they conduct research.

A. data

B. IRB

C. hypothesis

D. theory

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Methods of Data Collection

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

75. D.J. is working on a research team that is gathering information on how freshmen students view their first year of college. D.J.’s team wants to use a flexible conversational style that allows for follow-up questions in order to gather as much information as possible. Which technique is best suited for this type of study?

A. structured observations

B. a structured interview

C. an open-ended interview

D. naturalistic observations

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Self-Report Measures

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

76. When using ______ interviews, all participants are given the same set of questions in the exact same order.

A. open ended

B. clinical

C. structured

D. quasi

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Self-Report Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

77. ______, or surveys, are sets of questions, typically multiple choice, that scientists compile and use to collect data from large samples of people.

A. Structured interviews

B. Open-ended interviews

C. Rating scales

D. Questionnaires

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Self-Report Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

78. Vernessa is working on her master’s degree in behavioral health. She is interested in adolescents who are most likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex and alcohol and drug use. She plans to conduct a study of 20,000 teenagers across the country to identify trends in high-risk behaviors. Which method of data collection would be best suited for this type of study?

A. Questionnaires

B. Clinical interviews

C. Naturalistic observations

D. Structured observations

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Self-Report Measures

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

79. Which of the following is a limitation associated with self-report data?

A. It is very expensive and time-consuming.

B. Answers may not reflect participants’ true attitudes and behavior.

C. It is difficult to ensure anonymity of participant responses.

D. They can only be used for small samples of people.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Self-Report Measures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

80. Farrah is taking a child development course in which she must practice conducting naturalistic observations. Which of the following is an example of a naturalistic observation?

A. playing a card game with her cousins and writing down who has the most points at the end of each hand

B. interviewing a parent about her beliefs on corporal punishment

C. watching a television program about children with autism

D. observing preschoolers during recess and writing down instances of peer aggression

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Observational Measures

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

81. When conducting a naturalistic observation, one must first decide on ______.

A. which participants will be easiest to observe

B. an operational definition of the behavior of interest

C. a coding system to use during the observation

D. which statistical program to use to analyze the data

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Observational Measures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

82. In some instances, the presence of an observer can cause the person to behave in unnatural ways or ways that are not typical for him or her. This is known as ______.

A. observation bias

B. bidirectional influence

C. a cohort effect

D. participant reactivity

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Observational Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

83. An important strength of naturalistic observation is that it allows researchers to ______.

A. implement their own coding system

B. draw conclusions about behavior without analyzing data

C. observe behaviors in real-world settings

D. exercise control over the environment

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Observational Measures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

84. ______ involve observing and recording behaviors that are displayed in a controlled environment.

A. Naturalistic observations

B. Structured observations

C. Clinical interviews

D. Questionnaires

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Observational Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

85. Researchers have found that reading to infants and toddlers leads to gains in language development, as well as enhanced school readiness skills. The relationship between reading to infants and toddlers and favorable developmental outcomes is ______.

A. correlational

B. causal

C. experimental

D. observational

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Correlational Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

86. ______ research permits researchers to examine relations among measured characteristics, behaviors, and events.

A. Experimental

B. Correlational

C. Cross-sectional

D. Quasi-experimental

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Correlational Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

87. Causal relationships between variables can only be determined through ______ research.

A. correlational

B. experimental

C. longitudinal

D. cross-sectional

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

88. In experimental research, the ______ variable is manipulated or varied systematically by the researcher during the experiment, whereas the ______ variable is the behavior under study.

A. dependent; independent

B. independent; dependent

C. control; extraneous

D. extraneous; control

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

89. When conducting experimental research, the ______ group is treated in every way like the experimental group but does not receive the independent variable in order to compare the effect of the manipulation.

A. control

B. treatment

C. dependent

D. cohort

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

90. ______ is the procedure in which every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental or control group and is essential for ensuring that the groups are equal in all preexisting characteristics, such as age, ethnicity, and gender.

A. Manipulation of the dependent variable

B. Correlational assignment

C. Standardization

D. Random assignment

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

91. The ______ research design compares groups of people at different ages, at one time.

A. correlational

B. experimental

C. cross-sectional

D. longitudinal

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cross-Sectional Research Design

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

92. Professor Ming studies the effects of trauma on mental health across the lifespan. She plans to conduct a study that includes participants from the following age ranges: 6–12, 13–19, 20–40, and 50–70. All of her participants will be from an area that experienced a natural disaster, such as a deadly hurricane or earthquake. Professor Ming will then look at symptoms of depression and anxiety in each of the age groups to draw conclusions about age-related differences in the processing of traumatic events. Which research design is best suited for this study?

A. Experimental

B. Cross-sectional

C. Longitudinal

D. Sequential

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cross-Sectional Research Design

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

93. Investigators use the ______ research design when studying the same group of participants at many points in time.

A. cross-sectional

B. longitudinal

C. sequential

D. experimental

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Longitudinal Research Design

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

94. An important strength of longitudinal research is that it provides information about ______ over time.

A. non-age-related changes

B. cohort effects

C. age-related changes

D. control groups

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Longitudinal Research Design

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

95. A weakness associated with longitudinal research is that experiences or events affecting one generation of participants may be very different than those affecting another generation. This is known as ______.

A. cohort effects

B. research bias

C. participant reactivity

D. longitudinal variability

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Longitudinal Research Design

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

96. Sequential research designs combine the best features of ______ and ______ research.

A. correlational; experimental

B. observational; laboratory

C. naturalistic observation; experimental

D. cross-sectional; longitudinal

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sequential Research Designs

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

97. The sequential research design provides information about ______.

A. age-related changes only

B. age and gender

C. age, cohort, and age-related change

D. cause and effect

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sequential Research Designs

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

98. When conducting research, investigators are bound by ______ or the determination of what is right and wrong.

A. ethics

B. previous theories

C. morals

D. sentiment

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

99. Beneficence and ______ are the dual responsibilities to do good and not do harm when conducting research.

A. responsibility

B. integrity

C. justice

D. nonmaleficence

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

100. The ethical principle of ______ requires scientists to be accurate, honest, and truthful in their work.

A. integrity

B. responsibility

C. justice

D. beneficence

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

101. Prior to beginning any study, Professor Cleutter’s research team carefully explains the research to potential participants, answers questions, and helps them to determine if the study is right for them. Professor Cleutter and his team are showing respect for participants' ______.

A. integrity

B. autonomy

C. beneficence

D. justice

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

102. The ethical principle of ______ compels scientists to ensure that all people have access to the contributions and benefits of research.

A. integrity

B. responsibility

C. beneficence

D. justice

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

103. When conducting research, scientists must balance ______ against the ______.

A. time; resources available

B. goals of the IRB; desired results from the research

C. the benefits; possible harm

D. rights of participants; rights of the researchers

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Participants

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

104. Ethical codes of conduct state that researchers must obtain ______ consent from each participant, which states their informed, rational, and voluntary agreement to participate.

A. informal

B. informed

C. IRB

D. verbal but not written

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Participants

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

105. When conducting research with younger children, Dr. Willard seeks ______, which is the child’s agreement to participate.

A. parental approval

B. IRB approval

C. informal consent

D. assent

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Participants

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

True/False

 

1. Researchers agree that development ends in adulthood.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Lifespan Human Development?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

2. The physical and social environment, including family, neighborhood, country, culture, and historical time period, is referred to as context.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Is Influenced by Multiple Contexts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

3. Many existing theories and research on human development are based on Western samples.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Is Influenced by Multiple Contexts

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

4. A continuous view of development emphasizes gradual and steady changes.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Continuities and Discontinuities in Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

5. A researcher who believes that heredity, maturational processes, and evolution are primarily responsible for development emphasizes nurture over nature.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Nature and Nurture Influence Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

6. Unlike Freud, Erikson believed that personality development occurs throughout the lifespan.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

7. Bandura’s social learning theory maintains that children are passive learners and are primarily shaped by the environments in which they grow and develop.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Social Learning Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

8. Piaget believed that children and adults actively learn about their environments by interacting with the world around them.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

9. In contrast to information processing theory, Piaget believed that the mind works in ways similar to a computer.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Information Processing Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

10. Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children are active in their development by engaging with the world around them.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

11. Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes the importance of culture in children’s cognitive development.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

12. Ethological theory is the scientific study of the evolutionary basis of behavior and its survival value.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

13. In scientific research, interviews and questionnaires are types of self-report measures.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Self-Report Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

14. A structured interview is using a flexible, conversational style of information gathering.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Self-Report Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

15. Monitoring a person’s cortisol level is an example of a physiological measure.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Physiological Measures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

16. Watching school-age children play at recess and noting instances of aggressive behavior for later analysis is called naturalistic observation.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Observational Measures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

17. An important strength of correlational research is that it allows researchers to determine if one variable causes changes in another variable.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Correlational Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

18. In experimental research, the independent variable is manipulated or varied systematically during the study.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

19. In the cross-sectional research design, information is gathered from people of several ages at one time, which permits age comparisons.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cross-Sectional Research Design

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

20. A limitation of longitudinal research is that it does not permit inferences about age-related changes over time.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Longitudinal Research Design

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

21. One ethical guideline that a researcher must adhere to is respect for his participants’ autonomy, or ability to make and implement their own decisions.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

22. The United States is the only country in the world that regulates the conduct of research through institutional review boards (IRBs).

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Participants

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

23. When conducting research, investigators are responsible only to their participants, not to society at large.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Society

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Short Answer

 

1. List the nine life stages of human development.

Ans: Human development includes the following stages: prenatal, infancy and toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, late adulthood, and death.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Lifespan Human Development?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

2. Provide an example of how your current cohort (or generation) differs from that of your parents or grandparents.

Ans: Multiple answers will work for this question. Changes in access to college, changes in technology and/or social media, and historical events are among the examples that students can provide for this question.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Is Influenced by Multiple Contexts

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

3. Why must developmental science incorporate research from multiple disciplines?

Ans: Developmental science focuses on all aspect of human development including cognitive, emotional, physical, and social growth. Due to this complexity, developmental science must consider all aspects of people’s minds, bodies, and environments, which requires them to examine multiple disciplines.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Developmental Science is Multidisciplinary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

4. Think about your own physical and social development. Give one example of how you have experienced, or are currently experiencing, continuous change.

Ans: Multiple examples will work for this question, such as learning a new skill or trade, progressively growing taller, or any other type of gradual change in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social development.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Continuities and Discontinuities in Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

5. Why do developmental scientists no longer attempt to determine whether nature or nurture influences human development?

Ans: Developmental scientists no longer attempt to determine whether nature or nurture influences human development because most now agree that both are important contributors to each person’s development.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Nature and Nurture Influence Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

6. Consider a woman who takes a mostly passive role in her development. How does the environment still play a role in her development?

Ans: Even though the woman does not significantly influence her environment, her development is still being shaped by her surroundings.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Individuals Are Active in Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

7. What is a challenge to using physiological measures when conducting developmental research? Use an example to support your answer.

Ans: A challenge to physiological measures is that they may be difficult to interpret. Multiple examples will work for this question. Excitement and anger can both cause an increase in heart rate. An increase in perspiration can be a result of several environmental or emotional changes.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Physiological Measures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

8. What is a benefit to using physiological measures when conducting developmental research? Use an example to support your answer.

Ans: There are a couple of benefits to using physiological measures. Physiological measures do not rely on verbal reports and generally cannot be faked; therefore, these measures can be used when studying infants or other nonverbal subjects.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Physiological Measures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

9. Assume that you are conducting a study on the effectiveness of various weight loss methods. You randomly assign 120 participants to one of the following groups: (1) Weight Watchers, (2) a 6-week exercise and nutrition camp, or (3) a free subscription to an online application that tracks calories, exercise, and provides daily feedback about nutrition and physical activity. What is the independent variable? What is a possible dependent variable?

Ans: Independent variable: group or group assignment. Dependent variable: weight loss or changes in weight

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

10. Decades of research show a relationship between viewing media violence and aggressive behavior in children. Why can we not say that viewing media violence causes aggression in children?

Ans: Research on media violence and aggression is correlational. That is, it tells us there is a relationship between the variables. However, we cannot say that this relationship is causal because there may be other factors that contribute to this relationship. In addition, we can only determine causal relationships through carefully controlled experimental research.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

11. List five ethical principles that guide developmental scientists’ work.

Ans: Developmental scientists’ work is guided by the following ethical principles: (1) beneficence and nonmaleficence, (2) responsibility, (3) integrity, (4) justice, and (5) respect for autonomy.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

12. How do scientists respect research participant’s autonomy?

Ans: Scientists respect research participant’s autonomy in a variety of ways. They can provide information about the study, honestly and accurately answer the participant’s questions, help the participant make important decisions about their role or participation in the study and, most importantly, accept the participant’s decision.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

13. In regard to research, what is the function of an institutional review board (IRB)?

Ans: An IRB examines all plans for conducting a study before it can begin at the college, university, hospital, or organization in which the study will be carried out. The IRB examines the study in terms of ethics, scientific benefit, and potential risks and benefits for the participants.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Participants

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

14. What responsibilities do researchers have to society in general? Why are these responsibilities important to consider when developing a research study?

Ans: Researchers must consider the social and political implications of their work and be prepared to appropriately address any concerns that people may have. This is important since findings can be misinterpreted or overshadowed by misinformation, which could in turn influence others to disregard significant or helpful research.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Society

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Essay

 

1. Researchers in lifespan development recognize that development is multidimensional. List three areas of development that illustrate this concept. How do these areas relate to one another?

Ans: Development is multidimensional and entails changes in many areas of development. For example, physical development refers to body maturation and growth, including body size, proportion, appearance, health, and perceptual abilities. Cognitive development refers to the maturation of thought processes and the tools that we use to obtain knowledge, become aware of the world around us, and solve problems. Psychosocial developmentincludes changes in personality, emotions, views of oneself, social skills, and interpersonal relationships with family and friends. Each of these areas of development overlap and interact with one another.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Outline five principles of the lifespan developmental perspective.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Is Multidimensional

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

2. Briefly summarize the three theoretical controversies of human development. What are the conflicting arguments for each? What conclusions have some developmental scientists reached in these debates?

Ans: The three theoretical controversies of human development focus on if developmental change is continuous or discontinuous, the role that people take in influencing how they change over time (active or passive), and what influences lifespan human development (nature vs. nurture). In general, developmental scientists have concluded that developmental change is not entirely continuous or discontinuous, but includes both continuity and discontinuity. The text also argues that the prevailing view among most developmental scientists is that people are active contributors to their own development. Even though a person can take a passive role, they are still shaped by the world around them.

Although much debate has centered on the topic of nature versus nurture, most scientists agree that neither side can fully explain human development because both are important contributors.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Discuss three theoretical controversies about human development.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Basic Issues in Lifespan Human Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

3. Each time Marissa takes her 3-year-old son, Javier, to the grocery store, he asks for candy or a toy. When Marissa tells Javier “no,” he throws a tantrum until she gives in and lets him have the requested item. Using the concept of operant conditioning, explain why Marissa is actually increasing the likelihood that Javier will continue to throw tantrums on future trips to the store.

Ans: Answers to this question may vary slightly: Although she likely does not realize it, Marissa is actually rewarding Javier’s behavior through both positive and negative reinforcement. Javier has learned that tantrums are a method of getting what he wants. Each time Marissa gives in, she is positively reinforcing the tantrum. At the same time, the desired item stops the tantrum, which is negatively reinforcing to Javier. As a result, Marissa is increasing the likelihood that Javier will continue to throw tantrums at the store when told that he cannot have candy or a toy.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Operant Conditioning

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

4. Your textbook provides an overview of the most influential theories of human development. Think about your own developmental experiences to this point. Which theory or theories do you most agree with and why? Which theory or theories do you find less appealing and why? Provide several examples from your own development to explain why you selected one theory (or several theories) over the others.

Ans: Answers to this question will vary. To adequately address this question, students must list and describe a theory or several theories to which they relate, as well as a theory or several theories that they find less useful. They should list some of the strengths and limitations, as well as provide several clear examples from their own developmental experiences.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Summarize five theoretical perspectives on human development.

Cognitive Domain: Application | Analysis

Answer Location: Theoretical Perspectives on Human Development

Difficulty Level: Hard | Medium

 

5. Describe the four steps used in the scientific method.

Ans: The scientific method includes the following steps:

1. Identify the research question or problem to be studied and formulate the hypothesis, or proposed explanation, to be tested.

2. Gather information to address the research question.

3. Use statistical analysis to summarize the information gathered and determine whether the hypothesis is refuted or shown to be false.

4. Interpret the summarized information, consider the findings in light of prior research studies, and share findings with the scientific community and world at large.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

6. Think about an interesting topic related to the study of lifespan human development. Assume that you wanted to know more about this topic and were going to plan a research study. First, identify your topic. Next, describe your method or methods of data collection. Be sure to mention the strengths and limitations associated with the method(s) that you chose. Would your study fall under the category of correlational or experimental research? If you’re looking at age or developmental differences, which research design would best fit your proposed topic and why? What ethical concerns would you need to consider for your study?

Ans: Multiple answers will work for this question. Students must clearly identify a topic, describe their data collection (including strengths and weaknesses of their chosen method[s]), and indicate whether or not their study is correlational or experimental, and if they chose a developmental design, it should be clear why their topic fits with that design. Ethical concerns should also be addressed in the answer.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the methods used in studying human development, including types of data and designs. | 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Application | Analysis

Answer Location: Research in Human Development | Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Hard | Medium

 

7. Consider the ethical dilemmas associated with testing a new treatment for autism spectrum disorder in children. What challenges might researchers face when developing the control group for this study?

Ans: Researchers would have to ensure that subjects for the control group are randomly assigned. If the subjects are participating in this study, then they are in need of treatment. The experimental treatment might even be a “last hope” for some of the subjects. Further complicating the issue is the fact that all subjects are minors. Therefore, it is imperative for the researchers to ensure that each subject has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental or control group.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

8. When minors participate in a research study they must provide assent, whereas their parents or legal guardians would provide the official informed consent. How would you obtain assent from a young child? How would this differ from how you would obtain assent from an older child or an adolescent?

Ans: For a young child, obtaining assent could be as simple as asking a few basic questions, such as “would you like to color with me?” or “can I ask you a few questions?” Since older children and adolescents are better able to communicate and understand complex decisions, the researcher should provide more information in order to gain more comprehensive consent.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss the responsibility of researchers to their participants and how they may protect them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Responsibilities to Participants

Difficulty Level: Medium