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Test bank Infants, Toddlers, & Caregivers 11th edition By Janet Gonzalez-Mena

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Test bank Infants, Toddlers, & Caregivers 11th edition By Janet Gonzalez-Mena

Test bank Infants, Toddlers, & Caregivers 11th edition By Janet Gonzalez-Mena

Chapter 01

Principles, Practice, and Curriculum

Multiple Choice Questions

1. (p. 4–5) This chapter discusses the 10 principles of respectful caregiving. These principles emphasize that _____ deserve the same respect as adults. 
A. infants and toddlers
B. parents
C. siblings
D. caregivers

This point is extremely important. Caregivers should be working with the assumption that children are valued and should be given the same respect as given to adults.


2. (p. 9) By talking naturally to a child, you teach _____. 
A. listening skills
B. language and speaking skills
C. words and language in context
D. All of the answers are correct.

Natural interactions provide many learning opportunities for a child. Giving context and meaning to conversational interactions is an effective way to teach communication skills.



3. (p. 10–11) If your body movement and appearance say one thing but your words say something else, how might this impact a child’s understanding of the communication? 
A. offers several useful modes of communication
B. sends two clear messages at once
C. sends two potentially conflicting messages
D. is an opportunity for clear communication

Matching your body language with your spoken language is important in helping a child comprehend what you are communicating. Being genuine and natural in communications with children helps to model clear communication skills.


4. (p. 11–13) Respectful interactions with a child include _____. 
A. involving a child in caregiving tasks such as changing a diaper
B. not carrying a child around like an object
C. talking to a child in a natural way
D. All of the answers are correct.

Respectful interactions build a foundation of trust and reciprocity that teach children social skills.


5. (p. 4–5) A responsive interaction chain is all of the following except 
A. the basis of effective caregiving.
B. the exchange of responses between caregiver and child.
C. a respectful way of interaction.
D. a clear demand of expectations from another.

Being attentive, open, and nonjudgmental is key to a responsive interaction.



6. (p. 4) The philosophy of infant-toddler care and education stressed in this book comes from the work of 
A. Adam Waldorf and Emily Browne.
B. Magda Gerber and Emmi Pikler.
C. John Dewey and Maria Montessori.
D. None of the answers is correct.

The philosophy of infant-toddler care and education comes from the work of two pioneers—Emmi Pikler and Magda Gerber. The 10 principles mentioned in this book stem from the work of the Pikler Institute and Resources for Infant Educarers (RIE).


7. (p. 4) The three Rs describe an infant’s or toddler’s _____ with others. 
A. physical position
B. stimulatory activities
C. interactions
D. play

Interactions should be respectful, responsive, and reciprocal.


8. (p. 5–6) Infant-toddler caregivers must be 
A. well trained.
B. good communicators and problem-solvers.
C. respectful.
D. All of the answers are correct.

Infant-toddler caregiving demands specific qualities in adults, which can be learned.


9. (p. 7–9) Investing in quality time involves 
A. making sure to spend time with every child in a group.
B. being fully present when spending time with a child.
C. making sure to use time out right away.
D. All of the answers are correct.

Quality time means paying total attention to a child. Infants and toddlers want and deserve our investment in individualized attention.


10. (p. 20) Which of these is a primary developmental goal underlying the 10 principles on which this book is based? 
A. security and trust
B. teaching behavior
C. quantity of development
D. directive opportunity

The 10 principles are aimed at building a secure, trusting relationship with a caregiver as well as supporting children’s trust in their own abilities.


 11. (p. 11–12) Which of the following actions illustrates the concept of respecting an infant or toddler?
A. picking up a child without saying anything
B. rushing and picking up a fallen toddler
C. changing a soiled diaper in silence
D. checking if a child needs reassurance or physical help

A caregiver’s role is to give young children time and freedom to work on problems. Instead of providing immediate physical help, the caregiver must first check if only reassurance is needed. This illustrates respect for an infant or toddler.


 12. (p. 6) If a caregiver involves children in things that concern them, it would
A. cause frustration in the caregiver and a delay in providing assistance.
B. make the children active participants in what happens to them.
C. cause disruption of the partnership between the caregiver and the children.
D. make the child increasingly dependent on the caregiver.

If a caregiver involved children in things that concern them, it would make the children active participants in what happens to them. Infants and toddlers have a long attention span when they are interested in something, because they are involved.



13. (p. 16) The primary way in which caregivers can help in the development of a child is by
A. encouraging the baby to do thoroughly whatever it is that he or she is doing.

B. recommending activities to parents for speeding up development.
C. constantly comparing him or her with other children of his or her age.

D. pushing all children to reach developmental milestones at the same time.


Each child has a built-in timetable that dictates just when he or she will crawl, sit up, and start to walk. The way caregivers can help development is to encourage each baby to do thoroughly whatever it is that he or she is doing. The important learnings come when the baby is ready, not when the adults decide it is time.


True/False Questions

14. (p. 5) All that is needed in caring for infants and toddlers is the ability to be warm and nurturing. 

In addition to being warm and nurturing, caregivers of young children also need to be educated about children’s developmental needs, abilities, and interaction styles. Instinct alone is not sufficient for a professional caregiver.


15. (p. 13) Caregivers must learn never to express their anger in front of young children and always be warm role models even if they get angry or upset. 

Children in child care need to be around real people, not warm, empty role-players. Part of being a real person or caregiver is getting angry, scared, upset, and nervous now and then.


16. (p. 15) Adults should never assist a child with problem-solving. 

Offering support or even suggestions to aid a child who may be struggling and about to give up helps the child keep going and solve the problem on his or her own.


17. (p. 15) Young children have the capacity to solve many problems. 

Many people do not give children appropriate credit for being complex problem-solvers. Offering a safe environment and a chance to explore objects and their properties allows children to discover how to solve problems. This experience also builds a sense of autonomy and accomplishment.



18. (p. 18–20) Recognizing the uniqueness of each child, his or her developmental level, and his or her cultural environment can offer an understanding of what responsive relationship-based care is about. 

Relationship-based care means respecting a child’s developmental level, uniqueness, and the context in which the child is embedded.


19. (p. 20) Caregivers can learn exactly how to honor every parent’s parenting practices by reading books about diversity. 

Caregivers learn about individual parenting practices through interaction and communication with parents.


20. (p. 17) When referring to infant-toddler curriculum, it is helpful to think of it as a meandering river rather than a set course of study. 

Infant-toddler curriculum is all-inclusive and incorporates a child’s direction and interests.


21. (p. 17–18) A practice that fits research and child development principles but does not fit some children and their families cannot be called a culturally appropriate practice in the larger sense.

Culturally appropriate practice (CAP) includes practices that come from differences in perceptions, values, beliefs, priorities, and traditions outside the mainstream American culture. It is important to realize that a practice may fit research and child development principles but may not fit some children and their families. In that case we cannot call that practice appropriate in the larger sense.



Matching Questions

21. (p. 19) Match the acronyms to the descriptions. 

1. DAP 

     practice that fits what is known about individual differences 


2. CAP 

     practices that come from different values, beliefs, perceptions, traditions, etc. 


3. IAP 

     practice based on child development principles relating to typical development 




22. (p. 4–18) Match the acronyms to the descriptions. 

1. RIE 

     organization that publishes information on DAP 


2. Three Rs 

     types of interactions 



     a resource program for infant-toddler educarers 



23. (p. 7) Match the following. 

1. floor time 

     When a child exhibits difficult behavior, the caregiver provides one-to-one non-directive attention. 


2. wants-something quality time 

     Caregiver is fully available and gently directing the child during diapering, feeding, and grooming. 


3. wants-nothing quality time 

     Caregiver is fully available without directing the action. 




Essay Questions

24. (p. 6–18) List 5 of the 10 principles of respectful caregiving you would apply in your daily interactions with infants and toddlers. Describe, in depth, how you would apply the five principles in your interactions. Give concrete examples, including statements you would make and behavior you would use. 

Answers may vary.


25. (p. 4–5) Explain the three-R interactions. Describe a caregiving interaction that is reflective of a three-R interaction. Analyze your example, and identify the ways that the caregiver demonstrated respect, responsiveness, and reciprocity. 

Answers may vary.



26. (p. 7–8) What are the benefits of floor time? Do you think being receptive and responsive are skills most adults need to learn? Why, or why not? 

Answers may vary.


27. (p. 8–9) Explain why it is important for caregivers to spend time focusing on one child. How does this type of interaction support a child’s development? 

Answers may vary.


28. (p. 18–21) Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) uses three knowledge bases to determine and plan appropriate practice for infants and toddlers. Name these three knowledge bases, and explain why they are important in creating developmentally appropriate practice. 

Answers may vary.


29. (p. 11–18) Infant-toddler curriculum is distinctly different from preschool and early-elementary curriculum. List the characteristics that make infant-toddler curriculum unique, and explain why it is a legitimate course of study. 

Answers may vary.


30. (p. 15–16) How do adults support infants’ and toddlers’ problem-solving in group settings? Explain how scaffolding helps. 

Answers may vary.