Test Bank Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods 7th Edition
Key: Answer, Type, Learning Objective, Level
(1)=Easy; (2)=Moderate; (3)=Difficult
Multiple Choice Single Select
M/C Question 1
a) was the first clinical psychologist.
b) conducted the first scientific studies of children.
c) was the father of modern statistics.
d) founded one of the first psychological laboratories.
M/C Question 2
The first psychological laboratory in the United States was established by
a) James McKeen Cattell.
b) G. Stanley Hall.
c) John Watson.
d) William James.
M/C Question 3
Research that is conducted to enhance our understanding of behavior without regard for the immediate application of this knowledge is
a) descriptive research.
b) applied research.
c) basic research.
d) empirical research.
M/C Question 4
Research that is designed to find solutions to particular problems is called
a) applied research.
b) post hoc research.
c) deductive research.
d) action research.
M/C Question 5
Research that uses behavioral research methods to investigate the effects of social and educational programs is called
a) evaluation research.
b) prediction research.
c) intervention research.
d) pseudoscientific research.
M/C Question 6
Whether a particular investigation is considered to be scientific depends on whether
a) it analyzes the data with statistics.
b) the topics it studies are scientific.
c) its findings are accurate.
d) its methods are empirical, verifiable, and deal with solvable questions.
M/C Question 7
How does the scientific observation of events differ from everyday observation?
a) Scientific observations are always correct.
b) Scientific observations are structured in a systematic fashion.
c) Scientific observations use highly specialized equipment.
d) Scientific observations may be interpreted in only one way.
M/C Question 8
Empiricism refers to the practice of relying on ________ to draw conclusions.
M/C Question 9
How does pseudoscience differ from true science?
a) Pseudoscientific ideas are wrong.
b) Pseudoscience is conducted by people without scientific degrees.
c) Pseudoscience violates the central criteria of true science.
d) Pseudoscience is not empirical.
M/C Question 10
Concluding that aliens have visited Earth on the basis of one person’s report that he saw a UFO fails to support which criterion of science?
b) Public verifiability
d) Statistical analysis
M/C Question 11
A set of propositions that attempts to specify the interrelationships among constructs is a(n)
b) pseudoscientific proposition.
c) post hoc explanation.
d) operational definition.
M/C Question 12
When researchers derive research hypotheses from a theory, they use
b) operational definitions.
M/C Question 13
A theory differs from a model in that a theory
a) can be tested by research.
b) is developed after data are collected.
c) explains both how and why concepts are related to each other.
d) is more strongly supported by empirical evidence.
M/C Question 14
A specific proposition that logically follows from a theory is a(n)
c) empirical generalization.
d) post hoc explanation.
M/C Question 15
Deriving a general explanation from specific facts involves
b) a priori reasoning.
c) post hoc analysis.
M/C Question 16
Empirical generalizations are
a) derived from observed results.
b) deduced from theories.
c) inferred from models.
d) generalized from assumptions.
M/C Question 17
A scientific hypothesis must be stated in such a way that it is
M/C Question 18
Some philosophers of science have suggested that the defining characteristic of science is its emphasis on
M/C Question 19
An explanation that is developed after obtaining a particular result is called
c) post hoc.
d) a priori.
M/C Question 20
An a priori hypothesis is
a) scientifically valid.
b) not falsifiable.
d) made before collecting data.
M/C Question 21
Operational definitions differ from conceptual definitions in that operational definitions are
a) more general.
b) specific to a particular research context.
c) similar to dictionary definitions.
d) not used in scientific research.
M/C Question 22
In a study of embarrassment, which of the following would be an operational definition of “blushing”?
a) A participant’s rating of how much he or she blushed on a 1 to 7 scale
b) A researcher’s rating of whether a participant blushed on a 1 to 5 scale
c) A physiological measure of blushing
d) All of these answers are operational definitions of blushing.
M/C Question 23
Although theories can never be ______, they can be _______ by the results of a particular research study.
a) proved; disproved
b) disproved; proved
c) proved; supported
d) falsified; proved
M/C Question 24
Given that theories cannot be proved nor disproved by the results of a research study, how does scientific knowledge progress?
a) On the basis of null findings
b) By considering the results of many related studies
c) Through experimentation
d) Knowledge does not progress.
M/C Question 25
A researcher who was applying the strategy of strong inference would design a study that
a) proved a theory.
b) generated null findings.
c) used many different research methods.
d) tested hypotheses derived from competing theories.
M/C Question 26
The practice of using many different methods and designs to test theories is called
a) strong inference.
b) methodological pluralism.
d) deductive research.
M/C Question 27
Null findings are results of a study that
a) disconfirm the researcher’s hypothesis.
b) confirm a common sense hypothesis.
c) reveal no relationships among the variables being studied.
d) are dismissed as invalid by the scientific community.
M/C Question 28
Null findings are often uninformative regarding the hypothesis being tested because they
a) indicate that the study is flawed.
b) are not based on empirical observation.
c) may be the result of a poor research design.
d) are not verifiable.
M/C Question 29
A researcher measured the public’s attitudes toward nuclear power after a nuclear accident. This is an example of ______ research.
b) post hoc
M/C Question 30
A researcher was interested in the effects of loud music on physiological arousal. After playing music to participants through headphones at one of five decibel levels (from very quiet to very loud), she measured their level of arousal. This is an example of ______ research.
b) post hoc
M/C Question 31
A researcher was interested in whether extraversion is related to drug use. He administered a measure of extraversion, along with a questionnaire regarding drug use, to 200 respondents, then looked at the relationship between the scores on the two measures. This is an example of ________ research.
b) post hoc
M/C Question 32
In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the researcher is the _______ variable.
M/C Question 33
In an experiment, the variable that is measured is the ______ variable.
M/C Question 34
When researchers are interested in studying the effects of a variable that they cannot control, they use _______ designs.
M/C Question 35
Research that involves the study of thinking and memory is most likely to be conducted within
a) cognitive psychology.
b) educational psychology.
c) school psychology.
d) social psychology.
M/C Question 36
A researcher who studies the relationship between processes occurring in the nervous system and behavior is most likely to be a(n)
a) cognitive psychologist.
b) personality psychologist.
c) clinical psychologist.
d) physiological psychologist.
Essay Question 37
In what sense is psychology both a science and a profession?
Essay Question 38
Describe the difference between basic and applied research.
Essay Question 39
Explain why systematic empiricism, public verification, and solvability are each essential to the scientific method.
Essay Question 40
Describe how researchers use induction and deduction to generate hypotheses for research.
Essay Question 41
Why are scientists skeptical of post hoc explanations?
Essay Question 42
Suggest three operational definitions of (a) selfishness and (b) fear of snakes.
Essay Question 43
What are null findings, and why have journals historically been reluctant to publish them?
Essay Question 44
When do researchers conduct correlational research?
Essay Question 45
In what was is a quasi-experiment different from a true experiment?
Essay Question 46
Distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable.