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Test Bank Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis- 7th Edition- Grove- Burns

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Test Bank For Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis- 7th Edition- Grove- Burns

Test Bank For Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis- 7th Edition- Grove- Burns

Chapter 6: Review of Relevant Literature

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following would be landmark research?
a. The discovery that during pancreatitis, the pancreas is actually digested by its own enzymes
b. A description of the importance of injecting immunizations in the proper location of the deltoid
c. The third in a series of four papers describing patterns of emergency room use in vacation communities
d. The first paper on the effect of using insulin for type I diabetes in humans

 

 

ANS:  D

Seminal studies are the first studies that prompted the initiation of the field of research. Landmark studies are the studies that led to an important development or a turning point in the field of research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 100

 

  1. A publication is printed every two months. Its volume number coincides with its year of publication (2008 = 1; 2009 = 2; 2010 = 3; etc.). Its issue number coincides with the order of publication, within a given year (Jan–Feb = 1; Mar–Apr = 2; etc). What kind of a publication is this?
a. A monograph
b. A periodical
c. An e-book
d. A serial

 

 

ANS:  D

Serials are published over time or may be in multiple volumes, but do not necessarily have a predictable publication date. Periodicals are subsets of serials with predictable publication dates, such as journals, which are published over time and are numbered sequentially for the years published. This sequential numbering is seen in the year, volume, issue, and page numbering of a journal. Monographs, such as books, hard-copy conference proceedings, or pamphlets, are usually written once and may be updated with a new edition as needed. Textbooks are monographs written to be used in formal education programs. Entire volumes of books available in a digital or electronic format are called e-books.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 100

 

  1. The type of literature that describes concept analyses, models, and frameworks is which of the following?
a. Empirical
b. Applicable
c. Able to be replicated
d. Theoretical

 

 

ANS:  D

Theoretical literature consists of concept analyses, models, theories, and conceptual frameworks that support a selected research problem and purpose. Empirical literature comprises knowledge derived from research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 100

 

  1. What primary sources might be available to someone writing a biography of Queen Elizabeth I, who died in the 17th century?
a. An interview with one of her maids-in-waiting
b. A previous history written about her
c. An article about her in a 17th-century publication
d. A diary written by her

 

 

ANS:  D

The published literature contains primary and secondary sources. A primary source is written by the person who originated, or is responsible for generating, the ideas published. A research publication published by the person or people who conducted the research is a primary source. A theoretical book or paper written by the theorist who developed the theory or conceptual content is a primary source. A secondary source summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. Thus, authors of secondary sources paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists. The problem with a secondary source is that the author has interpreted the works of someone else, and this interpretation is influenced by that author’s perception and bias. Authors have sometimes spread errors and misinterpretations by using secondary sources rather than primary sources. You should use mostly primary sources to write literature reviews. Secondary sources are used only if primary sources cannot be located or if a secondary source contains creative ideas or a unique organization of information not found in a primary source.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 101

 

  1. What is the purpose of the minimal review of relevant studies that the grounded theory researcher undertakes before writing the research proposal?
a. It compares the anticipated findings with the findings of similar research.
b. It directs the researcher in how to strategize data collection.
c. It helps the researcher to identify previous findings that will assist in interpretation of the planned study.
d. It reveals the need for the planned research by identifying what others have done.

 

 

ANS:  D

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review vary based on the type of study to be conducted. In development of a grounded theory study, a minimal review of relevant studies provides the beginning point of the inquiry, but this review is only a means of making the researcher aware of what studies have been conducted. This information, however, is not used to direct the collection of data or interpretation of the findings in a grounded theory study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 98

 

  1. In terms of the literature review, how are quantitative research and ethnographic research similar?
a. Both require the researcher to review the literature before beginning the study.
b. Both require the researcher to review the literature after completion of data analysis.
c. Both require the researcher to utilize the literature as the primary data source.
d. Both consider the literature review extraneous, postponing it until after the study is published.

 

 

ANS:  A

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review vary based on the type of study to be conducted. The purposes for reviewing the literature for ethnographic studies and for exploratory descriptive qualitative research are more similar to the literature review for quantitative research. The researcher develops a general understanding of the concepts to be examined related to the selected culture or topic. The literature review also provides a background for conducting the study and interpreting the findings.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 98

 

  1. Considering phenomenologists’ belief that experience constitutes reality, how does their approach to the literature review dovetail with that belief?
a. The literature is exactly as real as the other research data, and it is all analyzed and valued equally during the data analysis portion of the study.
b. If the literature reports other phenomenologists’ findings, based on experience, these can be considered alternative data sources.
c. The literature is a false interpretation of reality and cannot be considered, either before or after data analysis is complete.
d. The literature review is usually postponed until after data analysis completion, so that the understanding of the phenomenon will emanate solely from the data.

 

 

ANS:  B

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review depends on the type of study to be conducted. Some phenomenologists believe the literature should not be reviewed until after the data have been collected and analyzed so that the literature will not interfere with the researcher’s ability to suspend what is known and approach the topic with openness.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation           REF:   Page 98

 

  1. In historical research, what is the reason that the literature review begins so early and extends so far into the process?
a. Historians must include exact dates in their histories. The literature must be checked and double-checked, in order to verify the correctness of these dates.
b. Historical research demands one extra stage of data review, just prior to publication, since new published data could bring the results under scrutiny.
c. Historians develop their ideas for research proposals from reading other histories. As discrepancies arise, these provide the ideas for research.
d. The literature essentially comprises the bulk of the data set. From this, plus other artifacts and interviews, if available, the historian writes the story.

 

 

ANS:  D

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review vary based on the type of study to be conducted. In historical research, the initial review of the literature helps the researcher define the study questions and make decisions about relevant sources. The data collection is actually an intense review of published and unpublished documents that the researcher has found.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation           REF:   Page 98

 

  1. Why would the Boolean article OR be used if a researcher is conducting a digital literature search of journals on the topic of prolonged adolescent grieving after parental loss?
a. It focuses the search on parental loss, the last search term.
b. It is useful when a researcher is undecided.
c. It narrows the search to articles containing all terms.
d. It allows the researcher to enter the search terms without excluding those whose authors did not “keyword” all the words of the topic.

 

 

ANS:  D

The Boolean operators are the three words AND, OR, and NOT. Often they must be capitalized. The Boolean operators AND and NOT are used with the identified concepts. The Boolean operator OR is most useful with synonymous terms or concepts. It is used to search for the presence of any of a group of terms in the same search.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 105

 

  1. The original quotation in the fictional text by Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe (2009) is as follows:

“Because of overemphasis on academic excellence, especially test grades, the high schools studied had a disproportionate number of students who reported sleeplessness, nervousness, nightmares, and guilt. These were attributed to various factors, the most significant of which was a very strict principal, who voiced open disapproval of students she felt were underachieving their enormous academic potential. Parents were very accepting of this behavior, echoing it in their interactions with the students.”

What is the acceptable way to properly attribute this content in a literature review?

a. Parents were very accepting of the principal’s behavior, which included voiced disapproval of underachieving students, echoing it in their interactions with their sons and daughters.
b. Because of overemphasis on academic excellence, especially test grades, the high schools studied had a disproportionate number of students who reported sleeplessness, nervousness, nightmares, and guilt. These were attributed to various factors, the most significant of which was a very strict principal, who voiced open disapproval of students she felt were underachieving their enormous academic potential. Parents were very accepting of this behavior, echoing it in their interactions with the students. (Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe, 2009).
c. As compared with other high schools, Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe (2009) reported a higher incidence of distress manifestations, such as nightmares and nervousness, in a strictly college-prep school with an extremely disapproving principal, who verbally berated students for less-than-expected academic performance.
d. High schools with disapproving authority figures have a higher incidence of somatization (see Atchison et al, 2009).

 

 

ANS:  C

Rather than using direct quotes from an author, the writer of the literature review should paraphrase the author’s ideas. Use of the author’s exact words represents plagiarism. Eliminating the quotation marks, and citing an entire paragraph, with the authors’ names at the end, also constitutes plagiarism. Paraphrasing involves expressing the ideas clearly and in one’s own words. The meanings of these sources are then connected to the proposed study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 111

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which of the following might a researcher include in a review of the literature concerning acupuncture and conscious sedation for major surgical procedures? (Select all that apply.)
a. A research article from the Journal of Acupuncture comparing the use of acupuncture with general anesthesia
b. Bryson’s Human Physiology textbook
c. A research synthesis on alternatives to general anesthesia compiled by the Agency for Health Policy and Research
d. An article in National Enquirer on the dangers of major surgery
e. A master’s thesis on the use of acupuncture during closed reduction of radial-ulnar fractures
f. A Wikipedia article on how acupuncture works
g. A monograph written by a physician in a third world country who used acupuncture to control pain during surgical procedures

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, E, G

“The literature” consists of all written sources relevant to the selected topic. The literature includes newspapers, monographs, encyclopedias, conference papers, scientific journals, textbooks, other books, theses, dissertations, and clinical journals. Websites and reports developed by government agencies and professional organizations are also included. Online encyclopedias to which anyone can contribute, such as Wikipedia, are not considered scholarly sources.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 97

 

  1. A student’s first draft of her thesis contains the following:

Evidence to the contrary was provided in several studies of efficacy but never examined in a context of “the adolescent at sea with the ghost of his losses” (Reynolds, 2011).

The student’s reference list contains the following citation for this work:

Reynold, A. R. (2010). Never underestimate depression. Journal of Applied Psychology.

What is wrong with it? (Select all that apply.)

a. The reference list should re-state the quotation.
b. The reference is incomplete, lacking volume number and page numbers.
c. The years of the citation differ.
d. The author’s name is spelled differently in the citation and in the reference list.
e. No page number is provided for the direct quotation.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D, E

Sources that will be cited in a paper or recorded in a reference list should be cross-checked two or three times to prevent errors. Questions that will identify common errors are displayed in Box 6-1. To prevent these errors, the author checks all the citations within the text of the literature review and each citation in his or her reference list, to assure agreement and completeness.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 112

 

  1. In which of the following methods does substantive review of the literature take place after data analysis? (Select all that apply.)
a. Grounded theory
b. Historicism
c. Phenomenology
d. Ethnography
e. Quantitative descriptive

 

 

ANS:  A, C

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review depends on the type of study to be conducted. Some phenomenologists believe the literature should not be reviewed until after the data have been collected and analyzed so that the literature will not interfere with the researcher’s ability to suspend what is known and approach the topic with openness. In development of a grounded theory study, a minimal review of relevant studies provides the beginning point of the inquiry, but this review is only a means of making the researcher aware of what studies have been conducted. This information, however, is not used to direct the collection of data or interpretation of the findings in a grounded theory study. During the data analysis stage, a core variable is identified and the researcher theoretically samples the literature for extant theories that may assist in explaining and extending the emerging theory. In historical research, the initial review of the literature helps the researcher define the study questions and make decisions about relevant sources. The data collection is actually an intense review of published and unpublished documents that the researcher has found. The purposes for reviewing the literature for ethnographic studies and for exploratory descriptive qualitative research are more similar to the literature review for quantitative research. The researcher develops a general understanding of the concepts to be examined related to the selected culture or topic. The literature review also provides a background for conducting the study and interpreting the findings. The review of literature in quantitative research directs the development and implementation of a study. The focus of the major literature review at the beginning of the research process is to identify a gap in what is known.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 98

 

  1. Which of the following are purposes of the literature review in quantitative research concerning patient compliant with alternating leg pressure stockings (ALPs)? (Select all that apply.)
a. It gives the researcher an overview of anecdotal reports about how it feels to the patient to wear ALPs.
b. It allows the researcher to use the data from previous research on ALPs to add to his or her database.
c. It allows the researcher to construct theory about compliance with ALPs.
d. It gives the researcher something with which to compare his or her findings on compliance with ALPs.
e. It allows the researcher to discover previous research in the area of ALPs, so as to identify what is not known (the research gap).

 

 

ANS:  D, E

The review of literature in quantitative research directs the development and implementation of a study. The focus of the major literature review at the beginning of the research process is to identify a gap in what is known. The study is designed to add knowledge in the area of the identified gap. After a thorough review of the literature, the researcher identifies a specific gap in knowledge. After the data have been analyzed and the findings described, the researcher will return to the literature in the generalization phase of the research report to integrate knowledge from the literature with new knowledge obtained from the study. The purpose of the literature review is similar for the different types of quantitative studies (descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental).

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 98

 

  1. In phenomenology, often the review of the literature is conducted after data analysis is complete. What is the reason for this? (Select all that apply.)
a. The data analysis phase of phenomenology includes a literature review.
b. Phenomenology is data-free, and analyses are based only on the interpretation of the researcher.
c. Some phenomenologists do believe that one can “bracket” what is known, in order to perform an unbiased analysis, but it seems pointless to absorb information just to then put it aside, so literature review is usually postponed.
d. Some phenomenologists don’t believe that one can “bracket” what is known, in order to perform an unbiased analysis of the data, so they try to minimize what they read about the topic of the study until data analysis is complete.
e. The review of the literature provides an objective cross-check for the researcher’s interpretation.

 

 

ANS:  C, D

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review depends on the type of study to be conducted. Some phenomenologists believe the literature should not be reviewed until after the data have been collected and analyzed so that the literature will not interfere with the researcher’s ability to suspend what is known and approach the topic with openness.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 98

 

  1. It is appropriate to conduct a review of the literature in which of the following circumstances? (Select all that apply.)
a. An ethnographic study is planned.
b. A nurse is interested in conducting research on patients who “sundown.”
c. One requirement for a graduate course paper is a written literature review.
d. A hospital is attempting to develop a policy on bathing frequency for elders.
e. The hospital attorney is preparing a brief relative to a fall suffered by a patient.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D

For most course papers, instructors expect students to review published sources related to the paper’s topic. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed through the synthesis of the literature on the clinical problem. The purpose of the literature review designed to examine the strength of the evidence is to identify all studies that provide evidence of a particular intervention, to critically appraise the quality of each study, and to synthesize all of the studies providing evidence of the effectiveness of a particular intervention. The purposes for reviewing the literature for ethnographic studies and for exploratory descriptive qualitative research are more similar to the literature review for quantitative research. The researcher develops a general understanding of the concepts to be examined related to the selected culture or topic. The literature review also provides a background for conducting the study and interpreting the findings. The focus of the major literature review at the beginning of the research process is to identify a gap in what is known.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 98

 

  1. The review of literature in quantitative research directs everything from the first ideas about the study variables through recommendations based upon the study’s conclusions. Which of the following are outputs of the literature review in quantitative research? (Select all that apply.)
a. Development of conceptual definitions of concepts
b. Determining the statistical power of the sample
c. Determination of how many subjects will drop out of the study
d. Description of what studies have been performed, so as to provide initial direction for the study method
e. Interpretation of the study findings, in comparison with previous research

 

 

ANS:  A, D, E

In quantitative studies, information obtained from the review of literature influences the development of several steps in the research process (Table 6-1), which include, among other items: developing conceptual and operational definitions, defining the purpose of the study, establishing the research gap, synthesizing previous research in the area, selecting a research design, and finally interpreting the study, in light of previous research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 99

 

  1. Why would a reputable researcher use a secondary source instead of a primary one? (Select all that apply.)
a. The primary publication is written in a language not currently spoken.
b. The primary source person will not consent to be interviewed, but a person who knows the story secondhand will consent.
c. The primary publication is so steeped in jargon that it is very difficult to decipher.
d. The researcher has limited time and cannot squander it searching for primary sources.
e. The primary publication describes only the beginnings of a theory, and a later publication presents it in entirety.
f. There have never been any primary sources in this area.
g. The primary publication is no longer in print, and there are no extant copies.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, E, G

The published literature contains primary and secondary sources. A primary source is written by the person who originated, or is responsible for generating, the ideas published. A research publication published by the person or people who conducted the research is a primary source. A theoretical book or paper written by the theorist who developed the theory or conceptual content is a primary source. A secondary source summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. Thus, authors of secondary sources paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists. The problem with a secondary source is that the author has interpreted the works of someone else, and this interpretation is influenced by that author’s perception and bias. Authors have sometimes spread errors and misinterpretations by using secondary sources rather than primary sources. One should use mostly primary sources to write literature reviews. Secondary sources are used when primary sources cannot be located or utilized, or if a secondary source contains creative ideas or a unique organization of information not found in a primary source.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 101