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Test Bank Principles of Biology 1st Edition Brooker

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Test Bank Principles of Biology 1st Edition Brooker

 Test Bank Principles of Biology 1st Edition Brooker

Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

Chapter 02

The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

 

  1. The atomic number of an atom is A. the number of protons in the atom.B. the number of neutrons in the atom.

 

C. the number of protons and electrons in the atom. D. the number of protons and neutrons in the atom. E. None of these choices are correct.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember

 

LO: 02.01.03 Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. The smallest functional unit and associated structures of a living organism are A. atoms and their protons, neutrons and electrons.

 

B. molecules and their atoms, bonds and electrons. C. proteins and amino acids.

 

D. cells with nucleus, mitochondria and ER. E. water made of hydrogen and oxygen.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember

Gradable: automatic

 

LO: 02.01.01 Describe the general structure of atoms and their constituent particles.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

Check All That Apply Questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-1


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. With an atomic mass of 16 and an atomic number of 8, it follows that oxygen __X__ has eight electrons.

 

_____ has 16 neutrons.

__X__ can readily form bonds with 2 other atoms.

_____ weighs 16 grams.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.01.03 Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

 

  1. The nucleus of an atom is composed of A. protons.

 

B. neutrons. C. electrons.

 

D.protons and neutrons.E. protons and electrons.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember

 

LO: 02.01.01 Describe the general structure of atoms and their constituent particles.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. The first, inner-most energy shell of an atom A. can have a maximum of 8 electrons.

 

B.can have a maximum of 2 electrons.C. is called the 2p orbital.

 

D. is called the 1s orbital and can have a maximum of 8 electrons. E. is called the 2p orbital and can have a maximum of 2 electrons.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember

 

LO: 02.01.02 Discuss the way electrons occupy electron shells that surround the nucleus.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-2


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. Tritiated hydrogen (3H) differs from hydrogen (1H) in that A. 3H has 2 more protons than1H.

 

B. 3H has 2 more electrons than1H.C.3H has 2 more neutrons than1H.

D. 3H has the same number of neutrons as1H.

E. 3H has a different electron configuration than1H.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.01.05 Explain how a single element may exist in more than one form, called isotopes.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. Isotopes are different forms of the same element that A. differ in their number of neutrons.

 

B. differ in their number of protons. C. are all produced artificially.

 

D. cannot form covalent bonds. E. cannot form ions.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

LO: 02.01.05 Explain how a single element may exist in more than one form, called isotopes.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. The element found in most abundance in living organisms is A. calcium.

 

B. iron. C. iodine.D.hydrogen.E. sodium.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.01.06 List the elements that make up most of the mass of all living organisms.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-3


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. Nitrogen has 7 electrons and can form a maximum of ________ bonds with other elements.

 

A. 1 B. 2C.3D. 4 E. 5

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

10. Molecules

  1. are derived from the ionic bonding of two or more atoms.
  2. have the same physical properties as the atoms from which they were derived.
  3. are not important in biological processes.
    1. can form from the covalent bonding of two or more atoms.
    2. cannot have a charge.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. Carbon has 4 electrons and hydrogen has 1 electron in its outermost electron shell. A carbon atom can form covalent bonds with how many hydrogen atoms?

 

A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3E.4

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

LO: 02.01.02 Discuss the way electrons occupy electron shells that surround the nucleus.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-4


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. When one atom loses an electron to another atom, it results in the formation of A. a polar covalent bond and a new molecule.

 

B.cations and anions that can form ionic bonds.C. a covalent bond between the two.

 

D. many hydrogen bonds.

E. a nonpolar covalent bond that is difficult to break.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. The strongest chemical bonds are A. hydrogen bonds.

 

B. Van der Waal forces.

 

C. hydrophobic interactions. D. ionic bonds.

 

E.covalent bonds.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

14. What type of bonding is likely to occur between two water molecules or strands of DNA?

 

  1. covalent
  2. ionic
    1. hydrogen
    2. both hydrogen and covalent
    3. both hydrogen and ionic

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-5


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. Carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativities and combine together to form hydrocarbon molecules. What type of bonds form between these atoms?

 

A. hydrogen B. ionic

 

C. polar covalent

 

D.nonpolar covalentE. electrostatic

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.02.02 Explain the concept of electronegativity and how it contributes to the formation of polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. What type of bonds form from the unequal sharing of electrons? A. hydrogen

 

B. ionic

C.polar covalent

 

D. nonpolar covalent E. electrostatic

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. In water, MgCl2 dissociates into Mg2+ and Cl-. Based on this information what type of bond is involved in the formation of MgCl2?

 

A. hydrogenB.ionic

 

C. polar covalent

 

D. nonpolar covalent E. electrostatic

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-6


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. When one oxygen atom shares two pairs of electrons with another oxygen atom, O2 is formed via a(n)

 

A. single covalent bond.B.double covalent bond.C. triple covalent bond.

 

D. ionic bond.

E. hydrogen bond.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. The most hydrophilic substance is A. water.

 

B.an ion.C. oil.

 

D. an amphipathic molecule. E. a gas.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate

Gradable: automatic

 

LO: 02.04.02 List the properties of water that make it a good solvent, and distinguish between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances.

 

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

20. Amphipathic molecules

  1. possess only hydrophilic properties.
  2. possess only hydrophobic properties.
    1. possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
    2. possess neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic properties.
    3. tend not to interact with other molecules.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember

 

LO: 02.04.02 List the properties of water that make it a good solvent, and distinguish between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances.

 

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-7


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. For water to vaporize A. energy must be supplied. B. energy must be released. C. hydrogen bonds are broken.

 

D.both energy must be supplied and hydrogen bonds broken.E. both energy must be released and hydrogen bonds broken.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.04.01 Describe how hydrogen bonding determines many properties of water.

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

22. The molarity of a solution is

A.a measure of solute concentration.

B. the weight of a solid substance.

C. often expressed as grams per unit volume.

D. reflects a measure of the amount of oil dissolved in water.

E. a scientific term for determining the solubility of a substance in water.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember

 

LO: 02.04.03 Explain how the molarity of a solution—the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution—is used to measure the concentration of solutes in solution.

 

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

  1. Based on the colligative properties of water, what would happen if one were to add a solute to water?

 

A. The freezing point of water would decrease. B. The freezing point of water would increase. C. The boiling point of water would increase.

 

D.Both the freezing point of water would decrease and the boiling point of water wouldincrease.

 

E. Nothing would change with respect to the freezing point or boiling point of water.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

LO: 02.04.04 Discuss the properties of water that are critical for the survival of living organisms.

 

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-8


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

24. Water

A. is nonpolar.

B. has a low heat of vaporization.

C.has cohesive properties.

D. evaporates and increases body temperature.

E. is a relatively poor solvent.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.04.04 Discuss the properties of water that are critical for the survival of living organisms.

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

  1. If orange juice has a pH of 4 then it can be described as A. having a H+concentration is 4.

 

B.an acidic solution.C. an alkaline solution.

D. an acidic solution with a H+concentration of 4. E. None of these choices are correct.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

Gradable: automatic

 

LO: 02.05.01 Explain how water has the ability to ionize into hydroxide ions (OH-) and into hydrogen ions (H ), and how the H concentration is expressed as a solution’s pH.

 

Section: 02.05 pH and Buffers

Topic: pH and Buffers

 

 

  1. A significant role played by pH buffers is to A. prevent fluctuations in the acidity of solutions. B. increase the strength of acids and bases.

 

C. prevent fluctuations in the salinity of solutions.

 

D.limit major shifts in the amount of H+and OH-in solution.E. keep pH low.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.05.02 Give examples of how buffers maintain a stable environment in an animal’s body fluids.

 

Section: 02.05 pH and Buffers

 

Topic: pH and Buffers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-9


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. If a person ingested a can of soda with a pH of 3, the body would work to maintain homeostasis by

 

A. increasing the amount of H+in an acidic solution.B.reducing the amount of H+in an acidic solution.C. reducing the amount of H+in an alkaline solution.

 

D. increasing the amount of OH-ions in an alkaline solution. E. reducing the amount of OH-in an acidic solution.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.05.02 Give examples of how buffers maintain a stable environment in an animal’s body fluids.

Section: 02.05 pH and Buffers

 

Topic: pH and Buffers

 

 

  1. The addition of a strong acid like HCl to an aqueous solution would result in A. the release of H+into the solution.

 

B. an increase in pH. C. a decrease in pH.

D. both the release of H+and an increase in pH.E.both the release of H+and a decrease in pH.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze

 

Gradable: automatic

 

LO: 02.05.01 Explain how water has the ability to ionize into hydroxide ions (OH-) and into hydrogen ions (H ), and how the H concentration is expressed as a solution’s pH.

 

Section: 02.05 pH and Buffers

 

Topic: pH and Buffers

 

 

True / False Questions

 

 

  1. One gram of hydrogen, which has an atomic mass of 1, would have fewer atoms than 1 gram of carbon that has an atomic mass of 12.

 

FALSE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

LO: 02.01.04 Quantify atomic mass using units such as daltons and moles.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-10


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. Isotopes are different forms of the same element.

 

TRUE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.01.05 Explain how a single element may exist in more than one form, called isotopes.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. Sulfur 35 (35S) is an isotope of 32S. These elements differ in their number of neutrons.

TRUE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

LO: 02.01.05 Explain how a single element may exist in more than one form, called isotopes.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. Helium is an inert gas that rarely reacts with other elements because it has the maximum number of valence electrons in its outer shell.

 

TRUE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.01.02 Discuss the way electrons occupy electron shells that surround the nucleus.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. If lithium has an atomic number of 3 then it will have 1 valence electron.

 

TRUE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.01.03 Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-11


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. The electronegativity of an atom is a measure of its ability to attract electrons to its outer shell from another atom.

 

TRUE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.02.02 Explain the concept of electronegativity and how it contributes to the formation of polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. Table salt forms from sodium and chloride via hydrogen bonding.

 

FALSE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. Molecules are generally rigid structures and rarely change shape.

 

FALSE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.02.03 Describe how a molecule’s shape is important for its ability to interact with other molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. A dehydration reaction that builds larger molecules from smaller units requires the addition of a water molecule.

 

FALSE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

LO: 02.04.04 Discuss the properties of water that are critical for the survival of living organisms.

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-12


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. The hydroxyl (OH-) concentration of a solution with a pH of 8 would be 10-6 molar.

TRUE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

LO: 02.05.01 Explain how water has the ability to ionize into hydroxide ions (OH-) and into hydrogen ions (H ), and how the H concentration is expressed as a solution’s pH.

 

Section: 02.05 pH and Buffers

 

Topic: pH and Buffers

 

 

  1. Most enzymes or bioactive molecules work effectively within a broad range of pH.

 

FALSE

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

General LO: Compare relative scales of biological structures and processes.

 

Gradable: automatic

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

 

  1. Zn + 2H+ = Zn2+ + H2 is an example of a redox reaction. What is happening during this interaction? Is a bond created between the atoms during this reaction?

 

A. Oxidation reaction and acceptance of an electron; bond is formed.B.Reduction reaction and acceptance of an electron; no bond is formed.C. Reduction reaction and donation of an electron; no bond is formed. D. Covalent interaction; bond is formed.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze

 

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Type: Quantitative Reasoning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-13


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. You notice that the majority of the electrons in NaCl spend their time around the chlorine. You also notice that the electrons in H2 are evenly distributed among the two atoms. Which two types of bonds are represented in these molecules?

 

A. Covalent bonds in NaCl; ionic bonds in H2.

 

B. Covalent bonds in NaCl; covalent bonds in H2. C. Ionic bonds in NaCl; ionic bonds in H2.

D.Ionic bonds in NaCl; covalent bonds in H2.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.02.02 Explain the concept of electronegativity and how it contributes to the formation of polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. A bottle of Na in solution and a bottle of Cl in solution are mixed together. What type of bond will be created between the atoms, and what will be the product?

 

A. Covalent bonds; sodium chlorineB.Ionic bonds; table salt

 

C. Hydrogen bonds; sodium hydroxide D. Carbon bonds; carboxyl groups

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. You've been asked to stabilize a compound whose general state is altered by excess electrons. The element you would add to the compound to most effectively stabilize the compound would be? Why?

 

A. Carbon, because it is capable of neutralizing electrons. B. Nitrogen, because it has five electrons on its outer shell.

 

C.Fluorine, because it is the greediest atom on the periodic table.D. Oxygen, because it can easily bind with the compound.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.03.01 Relate the concept of a chemical reaction to the concept of chemical equilibrium.

 

Section: 02.03 Chemical Reactions

Topic: Chemical Reactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-14


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. You want to simulate the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a laboratory setting using carbon and oxygen atoms. What type of reactions do you need to facilitate in order to create CO2?

 

A. An oxidation, or the gain of an electron, and a reduction, or the loss of an electron. B. An oxidation, or the loss and electron, and a reduction, or the loss of an electron. C. An oxidation, or the gain of an electron, and a reduction, or the gain of electron.D.An oxidation, or the loss of an electron, and a reduction, or the gain of an electron.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.02.01 Compare and contrast the types of atomic interactions that lead to the formation of molecules.

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

 

  1. Five unknown compounds are added to water. Four of the compounds go into solution while one does not. What property does water possess that allows these four compounds to dissolve? Why might the fifth compound not dissolve?

 

A.The positive and negative charge in water will dissolve many substances; the substance isnot structurally similar to water.

 

B. The negative charge of water dissolves many substances; the substance is too structurallysimilar to water.

 

C. The positive charge of water dissolves many substances; the substance is too structurallysimilar to water.

 

D. The nonpolar qualities of water dissolves many substances; the substance is notstructurally similar to water.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

Gradable: automatic

 

LO: 02.04.01 Describe how hydrogen bonding determines many properties of water.

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-15


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. 1 mole = 1000 millimoles (mmol); 1millimole = 1000 micromoles (µmol). If a solution contains 38231 µmol, what is that amount in mmol?

 

A. 382.31 mmolB.38.231 mmolC. 3.8231 mmol D. 3823.1 mmol

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.01.04 Quantify atomic mass using units such as daltons and moles.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

Type: Quantitative Reasoning

 

 

  1. If 1000 millimoles make up a mole, how many grams of magnesium (Mg), which has an atomic mass of 24.305, will make a solution of 150 µmol?

 

A.3.6mgB. 2.4mg C. 0.24mg D. 36mg

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.04.03 Explain how the molarity of a solution—the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution—is used to measure the

 

concentration of solutes in solution.

 

Section: 02.04 Properties of Water

Type: Quantitative Reasoning

 

 

  1. Using the periodic table as a tool, identify the atomic characteristic that would most quickly and efficiently identify any single element.

 

A. number of shells B. number of neutrons

 

C.number of protons and electronsD. number of neutrons and electrons

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.01.03 Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-16


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. In the periodic table, the value that refers to the number of protons and neutrons is A. atomic mass.

 

B. molecular molarity. C. atomic molarity. D. molecular number.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.01.03 Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. You've been given three new elements. One element had all its protons removed, one element had all its neutrons removed, and one element had all its electrons removed. The removal that would have the largest effect on atomic mass would be

 

A. removing the protons.B.removing the neutrons.C. removing the electrons.

D. all the changes would affect the atomic mass.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

Gradable: automatic

 

LO: 02.01.03 Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. You have been asked to synthesize a new isotope for cadmium. Which part of the original atom would you need to manipulate in order to create an isotope?

 

A.NeutronsB. Protons

 

C. Protons and neutrons D. Electrons

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

LO: 02.01.05 Explain how a single element may exist in more than one form, called isotopes.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-17


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. The single atom you would choose to remove from living organisms in order to remove the highest percentage of atoms would be

 

A. oxygen. B. nitrogen.C.hydrogen.D. carbon.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.01.06 List the elements that make up most of the mass of all living organisms.

 

Section: 02.01 Atoms

 

Topic: Atoms

 

 

  1. Water has fewer hydrogen atoms than lemon juice and a pH of around 7. Predict what will happen to the pH level of water when lemon juice is added.

 

A. The pH will become higher.B.The pH will become lower.C. The pH will remain the same.

 

D. There is not enough information to decide.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply

 

LO: 02.05.01 Explain how water has the ability to ionize into hydroxide ions (OH-) and into hydrogen ions (H ), and how the H concentration is expressed as a solution’s pH.

Section: 02.01 Atoms

Topic: Atoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-18


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

54. What is most accurate when comparing solutions with a pH of 6 and a pH of 8?

 

A. The solution with a pH of 8 has a 100 times higher concentration of hydrogen ions than asolution with a pH of 6.

 

B. Solutions with a pH of 8 has a 2 times lower concentration of hydrogen ions than a solutionwith a pH of 6.

 

C.The solution with a pH of 6 has a 100 times higher concentration of hydrogen ions than asolution with a pH of 8.

 

D. The solution with a pH of 6 has a 100 times lower concentration of hydrogen ions than asolution with a pH of 8.

 

E. The solution with a pH of 6 has a 2 times higher concentration of hydrogen ions than asolution with a pH of 8.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate

 

Gradable: automatic

 

LO: 02.05.01 Explain how water has the ability to ionize into hydroxide ions (OH-) and into hydrogen ions (H ), and how the H concentration is expressed as a solution’s pH.

 

Section: 02.05 pH and Buffers

Topic: pH and Buffers

 

 

  1. During photosynthesis the reactants, carbon dioxide and water can become glucose and oxygen. Glucose and oxygen can also be reactants to form water and carbon dioxide. If the two reactions are working at a constant rate this would form a

 

A. homeostasis.

 

B. constant polarity. C. universal balance.

 

D.chemical equilibrium.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.03.01 Relate the concept of a chemical reaction to the concept of chemical equilibrium.

 

Section: 02.03 Chemical Reactions

 

Topic: Chemical Reactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-19


 

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 - The Chemical Basis of Life I: Atoms, Molecules, and Water

 

 

 

  1. What would be the most likely outcome if water molecules had a straight geometry instead of a bent geometry?

 

A. Hydrogen bonding between water molecules would have potentially shorter bond distance. B. The partially positive ends would be at the poles of the molecule and the partially negativewould be in the middle.

 

C. Water would tend to stack more closely and water would become more dense. D. Water would take up more physical space.

 

E.Basic principles of chemistry and bonding would be violated.

 

 

 

Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate

 

Gradable: automatic

LO: 02.02.03 Describe how a molecule’s shape is important for its ability to interact with other molecules.

 

Section: 02.02 Chemical Bonds and Molecules

 

Topic: Chemical Bonds and Molecules