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Test Bank The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 6th Edition

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Test Bank The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 6th Edition

The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 6th Edition Test Bank

Bachman, The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 6th Edition

 

Chapter 1: Science, Society, and Criminological Research

 

Test Bank

 

 

  1. Ben interviews ten juvenile gang members and discovers that most regularly carry weapons. Based on this information, he argues that all juvenile gang members carry weapons. This is an example of:

 

  1. Careful observation
  2. Systematic reasoning

*c. Overgeneralization

  1. Inaccurate observation

 

Section: Everyday Errors of Reasoning

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. When conducting an interview, a researcher misunderstands a respondent’s statement and enters an incorrect entry into his notes. This is an example of:

 

  1. Careful observation
  2. Systematic reasoning
  3. Overgeneralization

*d. Inaccurate observation

 

Section: Everyday Errors of Reasoning

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Research shows that most criminals are poor. Many people think, therefore, that most poor people are criminals. This is an example of:

 

  1. Inaccurate observation
  2. Systematic reasoning
  3. Resistance to change

*d. Illogical reasoning

 

Section: Everyday Errors of Reasoning

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Intersubjective agreement is important to which philosophy?

 

  1. Constructivist

*b. Postpositivist

  1. Feminist
  2. Interpretivist

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. An individual is told that an auto manufacturing company has changed its business plan to make quality vehicles, but he refuses to believe this because he has had poor experiences with this company’s vehicles in the past. This is an example of:

 

  1. Uncritical agreement with authority
  2. Policy motivations

*c. Resistance to change

  1. Inaccurate observation

 

Section: Everyday Errors of Reasoning

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. In explaining her position on the death penalty, Sally states, “I support the death penalty because my parents do and I trust their opinions.” She is committing which type of reasoning error?

 

  1. Ego-based commitments
  2. Excessive devotion to tradition

*c. Uncritical agreement with authority

  1. Inaccurate observation

 

Section: Everyday Errors of Reasoning

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. In an effort to reduce violence, a high school principal is interested in adopting a zero tolerance rule at his school whereby students who bring weapons to school will automatically be expelled. He interviews other school administrators with and without zero tolerance rules. This study is driven by:

 

*a. Policy motivations

  1. Personal motivations
  2. Academic motivations
  3. Profit motivations

 

Section: Motives for Criminological Research

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. A criminology professor is interested in understanding how ex-offenders reintegrate back into the community. This study is driven by:

 

*a. Policy motivations

  1. Personal motivations
  2. Academic motivations
  3. Profit motivations

 

Section: Motives for Criminological Research

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. A volunteer for the Humane Society is about to conduct a study on animal abuse. She is most likely working from:

 

  1. Policy motivations

*b. Personal motivations

  1. Academic motivations
  2. Both B and C

 

Section: Motives for Criminological Research

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Which of the following is not a standard motivation for criminological research?

 

  1. Academic
  2. Personal
  3. Policy

*d. Profit

 

Section: Motives for Criminological Research

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. What type of research is concerned with how participants make sense of their actions?

 

  1. Descriptive

*b. Exploratory

  1. Explanatory
  2. Evaluation

 

Section: Social Criminological Research in Practice

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Examining the effect of a gun buyback program on reducing gun violence to determine whether more communities should implement similar programs is an example of:

 

  1. Descriptive research
  2. Exploratory research
  3. Explanatory research

*d. Evaluation research

 

Section: Social Criminological Research in Practice

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. A researcher is interested in identifying which types of drugs juveniles are more likely to use. This is an example of

 

*a. Descriptive research

  1. Exploratory research
  2. Explanatory research
  3. Evaluation research

 

Section: Social Criminological Research in Practice

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Exploratory research is generally concerned with:

 

*a. Uncovering detailed information about a new or understudied phenomenon

  1. Documenting the existence of causal relationships
  2. Exploring the effect of social programs
  3. Questions derived from personal motivations

 

Section: Social Criminological Research in Practice

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Studying the effect that being a victim of childhood abuse has on an individual’s likelihood of being an adult perpetrator of domestic violence is an example of:

 

  1. Descriptive research

*b. Explanatory research

  1. Exploratory research
  2. Evaluation research

 

Section: Social Criminological Research in Practice

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. The advancement of scientific knowledge is an important goal of which philosophy?

 

  1. Intrepetivist
  2. Constructivist
  3. Feminist

*d. Postpositivist

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Social science research will always be:

 

*a. Subject to error

  1. Quantitative
  2. Qualitative
  3. Without error

 

Section: The Social Science Approach

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. All of the following are true except:

 

  1. Quantitative data are usually numerical.
  2. Qualitative data usually focuses on words instead of numbers.

*c. A research project could not use both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate a phenomenon.

  1. Qualitative methods are used for exploration research.

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Examining song lyrics to determine attitudes toward teen alcohol use is an example of:

 

  1. Participant observation
  2. Intensive interviewing

*c. Content analysis

  1. Selective observation

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey is used to determine trends and patterns in violence-related behavior. It is an example of:

 

  1. Exploratory research
  2. Evaluation research

*c. Descriptive research

  1. Qualitative research

 

Section: Social Criminological Research in Practice

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. As part of her study on homeless teens, a researcher lives on the streets with the youth and observe their everyday lives. This would be an example of which type of research methodology?

 

  1. Questionnaire

*b. Participant Observation

  1. Intensive Interviewing
  2. Crime Mapping

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of qualitative research methods?

 

  1. Interviews
  2. Participant observation
  3. Focus groups

*d. Statistical analysis

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. A researcher uses interviews, surveys, and content analysis to study a research question. This is an example of:

 

*a. Triangulation

  1. Phenomenology
  2. Epistemology
  3. Phrenology

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. In order to study the media portrayal of female police officers, a student watches old TV shows and compares them with new ones. This is an example of:

 

  1. Evaluation research

*b. Content analysis

  1. Survey research
  2. Triangulation

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

25 Which of the following research methodologies is considered to be the most versatile?

 

  1. Interview
  2. Content analysis

*c. Survey

  1. Participant Observation

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. What type of methodology would be used first by a constructivist researcher?

 

  1. Questionnaire

*b. Interview

  1. Crime mapping
  2. Content analysis

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Researchers from which of the following philosophies believe that researchers are akin to activists?

 

  1. Positivist; Postpositivist
  2. Interpretivist; Positivist
  3. Postpositivist; Constructivist

*d. Interpretivist; Constructivist

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. True experiments must have:

 

  1. Two groups
  2. Random assignment into groups
  3. Assessment of change

*d. All of the above

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Researchers from which of the following philosophies believe in professional distance between researchers and subjects:

 

*a. Positivist researcher; Postpositivist researcher

  1. Interpretivist researcher; Positivist researcher
  2. Postpositivist researcher; Constructivist researcher
  3. Interpretivist researcher; Constructivist researcher

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Weber’s verstehen is related to which of the following social research philosophies?

 

*a. Intrepetivist

  1. Constructivist
  2. Positivist
  3. Postpositivist

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Personal motivations are valid motives for criminological research.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Section: Motives for Criminological Research

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Quantitative research is more scientific than qualitative research.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

 

  1. Using social science research methods completely eliminates error.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Section: The Social Science Approach

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Systematic measurement can reduce selective or inaccurate observations.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Section: The Social Science Approach

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Phrenology is a widely accepted scientific field in contemporary society.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Section: Science versus Pseudoscience

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Exploratory research rarely involves qualitative research.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. A person who believes that there is an objective reality has a positivistic view.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. An individual who believes that research methods are incapable of documenting reality has a postpositivistic view.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. The concept of hermeneutic circle is a closely aligned with positivist inquiry.
  2. True

*b. False

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. A case report is similar in content and style to a traditional research report.
  2. True

*b. False

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

 

  1. Epistemology is the study of how knowledge is accrued.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Section: Science Versus Pseudo Science

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. All studies meet the criteria for true experiments.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Questionnaires are administered by a researcher.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Transparency is an important feature of the scientific method.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Section: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Qualitative research focuses on the respondents’ experience.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Briefly describe a descriptive research project, an exploratory research project, an explanatory research project, and an evaluation research project that would examine youth violence. Clearly identify the main focus of each research project.

 

Section: Social Criminological Research in Practice

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Identify and explain three strengths and weaknesses of social science research.

 

Section: The Social Science Approach

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Imagine that a positivist researcher and a postpositivist researcher were collaborating on a project. How would their approaches be similar? How would they be different?

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Imagine that you are interested in studying urban violence. How could the research methods of secondary data analysis, historical events research, and crime mapping inform your understanding of the phenomenon?

 

Section: Specific Types of Research Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Propose a study in which you would use both quantitative and qualitative data to examine elder abuse. How is the project improved by a mixed methods approach?

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Select a topic of criminological inquiry and explain how you would approach the inquiry from an interpretivist perspective.

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. How might a feminist researcher approach the study of domestic violence?

 

Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Describe what types of research methodologies (e.g., surveys or participant observation) would be best suited for a positivist research project and which would be best for a constructivist project.

 

Section: Social Research Philosophies

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Identify an error of overgeneralization, selective observation, and illogical reasoning in research related to school violence. Explain exactly why you think the belief exemplifies the error(s).

 

Section: Everyday Errors of Reasoning

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

 

  1. Explain the difference between science and pseudo-science.

 

Section: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension