The cookie settings on this website are set to 'allow all cookies' to give you the very best experience. Please click Accept Cookies to continue to use the site.

Test Bank Understanding Human Sexuality 14th Edition By Janet Hyde

$35.00
(No reviews yet) Write a Review
SKU:
Test Bank Understanding Human Sexuality 14th Edition By Janet Hyde

Test Bank Understanding Human Sexuality 14th Edition By Janet Hyde

Chapter 01

Test Bank

 

1.According to the text, the term ______ can refer to the state of being male, female, or trans.

A. sex

B. gender

C. sexual behavior

D. sexual anatomy

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Differentiate sex and gender.

Topic: Gender

Topic: Sex

 

Feedback: Sex and Gender

 

2.According to the text, sexual behavior is defined as

A. the behavior that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm.

B. the sexual activity that is associated with masculine and feminine roles in some way.

C. penis-in-vagina intercourse.

D. the behavior that is chiefly associated with reproduction.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Differentiate sex and gender.

Topic: Sex

 

Feedback: Sex and Gender

 

3.Which of the following societies openly acknowledged homosexuality and heterosexuality?

A. twentieth-century Chinese

B. the Victorian Europeans

C. the ancient Greeks

D. fifteenth-century Christians

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast how the great world religions view sexuality.

Topic: Culture

Topic: Religion

 

Feedback: Religion

 

4.For the ancient Greeks, the norm of sexuality in their society was

A. homosexuality.

B. open acknowledgement of both heterosexuality and homosexuality.

C. persecution of homosexuals.

D. open heterosexuality and repressed homosexuality.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast how the great world religions view sexuality.

Topic: Culture

Topic: Religion

 

Feedback: Religion

 

5.Fifteenth-century Christians believed that wet dreams resulted from

A. hidden homosexual behavior.

B. sexual dreams.

C. weak control over the body.

D. intercourse with tiny spiritual creatures.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast how the great world religions view sexuality.

Topic: Religion

 

Feedback: Religion

 

6.According to the Malleus Maleficarum, the person who had wet dreams was guilty of

A. sodomy and witchcraft.

B. incestuous relationships.

C. unsafe sexual practices.

D. homosexuality and bestiality.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast how the great world religions view sexuality.

Topic: Religion

 

Feedback: Religion

 

7.Which of the following statements is true of religious understandings of sexuality?

A. The ancient Greeks condemned homosexual behavior.

B. Fifteenth-century Christians believed that a person who had "wet dreams" had great spiritual powers.

C. Fifteenth-century Christians believed that "wet dreams" resulted from homosexual behavior.

D. Muslims have believed that sexual intercourse is one of the finest pleasures of life.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast how the great world religions view sexuality.

Topic: Religion

 

Feedback: Religion

 

8.When the early sex researchers began their work in the Victorian era (the late 1800s), the norms about sexuality were extraordinarily

A. liberal.

B. rigid and oppressive.

C. similar to that of the ancient Greeks.

D. hedonistic.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Culture

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

9.Which of the following scientists discovered sperm swimming in human semen?

A. Henry Havelock Ellis

B. Oskar Hertwig

C. Anton van Leeuwenhoek

D. Richard von Krafft-Ebing

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

10.Which of the following scientists first observed the actual fertilization of the egg by the sperm in sea urchins?

A. Henry Havelock Ellis

B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek

C. Richard von Krafft-Ebing

D. Oskar Hertwig

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

11.Identify the Viennese physician who contributed to our understanding of the psychological aspects of human sexuality and who is also credited as the founder of psychiatry and psychoanalysis.

A. Richard von Krafft-Ebing

B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek

C. Sigmund Freud

D. Oskar Hertwig

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

12.The Victorian era, from which Freud and Ellis emerged, was characterized by

A. sexual fulfillment.

B. aberrant and obscene sensuality.

C. sexual permissiveness for both sexes.

D. sexual repression.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Culture

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

13.Which of the following researchers in Victorian England compiled a vast collection of information on sexuality—including medical and anthropological information—and can be considered the forerunner of modern sex research?

A. Richard von Krafft-Ebing

B. Sigmund Freud

C. Henry Havelock Ellis

D. Magnus Hirschfeld

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

14.______ was the author of Studies in the Psychology of Sex.

A. Sigmund Freud

B. Richard von Krafft-Ebing

C. Magnus Hirschfeld

D. Henry Havelock Ellis

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

15.Which of the following is true about Henry Havelock Ellis?

A. He urged society to reject sexual deviation.

B. He believed that women, like men, are sexual creatures.

C. He was primarily interested in the study of sexually-deviant behaviors.

D. He was a psychologist by profession.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

16.Richard von Krafft-Ebing had a special interest in

A. sexual malfunction.

B. sexually transmitted diseases.

C. pathological sexuality.

D. normative sexual behavior in children.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

17.Psychopathia Sexualis was authored by

A. Henry Havelock Ellis.

B. Sigmund Freud.

C. Richard von Krafft-Ebing.

D. Magnus Hirschfeld.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

18.Identify the early sex researcher who coined the concepts of sadism, masochism, and pedophilia.

A. Magnus Hirschfeld

B. Henry Havelock Ellis

C. Richard von Krafft-Ebing

D. Sigmund Freud

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

19.The first institute of sexual research was founded by

A. Henry Havelock Ellis.

B. Alfred Kinsey.

C. Richard von Krafft-Ebing.

D. Magnus Hirschfeld.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

20.Which of the following was an accomplishment of early sex researcher Magnus Hirschfeld?

A. He established the first journal on the study of sex.

B. He was the founder of psychiatry and psychoanalysis.

C. He was the first to observe the ovum in humans.

D. He coined the terms heterosexuality and homosexuality.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

21.One of Magnus Hirschfeld's special areas of interest in the study of human sexuality was

A. masochism.

B. the sexual response cycle.

C. homosexuality.

D. pedophilia.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

22.In the twentieth century, investigations of sexual disorders and the physiology of the sexual response were conducted by

A. Masters and Johnson.

B. Oskar Hertwig.

C. Anton van Leeuwenhoek.

D. Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Gregor Mendel.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

23.Which of the following is true of the scientific study of sex?

A. It is dominated primarily by religious views of sexuality.

B. It is now a dying field of scientific study.

C. It has emerged as a separate, unified academic discipline.

D. It tends to be an interdisciplinary effort among several scientific disciplines.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

Feedback: Science

 

24.______ refers to the notion that people begin to think that what they see on television and in other media really represents the mainstream of what happens in our culture.

A. Ethnocentrism

B. Collectivism

C. Cultivation theory

D. Agenda setting

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

25.Avid viewers of TV soap operas may begin to believe that sexual intercourse between unmarried individuals is mainstream because this is the most frequently shown sexual activity on these programs. Which of the following types of media influence is exemplified in this case?

A. agenda setting

B. cultural diversity

C. sexual repression

D. cultivation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

26.The media's constant stereotypical depiction of good-looking people as being happier, healthier, more successful, and living more glamorous lives causes many young viewers to overestimate the importance of physical appearance in real life. Which of the following types of media influence is best described in this example?

A. ethnocentrism

B. agenda setting

C. social learning

D. cultivation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

27.Which of the following examples is representative of the differential susceptibility model?

A. A local newscast chooses to regularly downplay reports of sexual violence in favor of stories about robberies and home break-ins.

B. A teenage girl who regularly sees the people she follows on Instagram vacationing in foreign locales starts to think that most people are wildly successful and are traveling almost all the time.

C. A teenage boy with aggressive tendencies thinks of himself as a tough kid and a fighter, and he seeks out media that celebrate physical combat, thereby reinforcing his interest in violence.

D. A teenager who was abused in childhood is deeply upset by depictions of sexual violence in films, while his movie companions remain largely unaffected.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

28.______ refers to the idea that the media influence our thinking about what is important by drawing attention to certain topics and not others.

A. Schematization

B. Ethnocentrism

C. Framing theory

D. Cultivation theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

29.In a particular year, news channels extensively reported the high-profile divorce of a celebrity while providing very little coverage of a hurricane in the same country. Thus, stories concerning the lives of celebrities were given more importance by the media than the destruction of lives and property. This example best illustrates which of the following types of media influence or phenomena?

A. social learning

B. cultivation

C. ethnocentrism

D. framing theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

30.A television network only telecasts sensational stories on the lives of the rich and the famous and their sexual exploits. This example best illustrates which of the following?

A. social learning

B. framing theory

C. cultivation

D. ethnocentrism

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

31.In communications theory, ______ is the idea or theory that the media provide role models whom we imitate.

A. ethnocentrism

B. cultivation theory

C. agenda setting

D. social cognitive theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

32.Fiona is a teenager in high school and a fan of a TV show that centers on the lives of a group of rich socialites. She emulates the characters so much that even her wardrobe resembles that of the female leads on the show. Which of the following is best described or represented in this scenario?

A. framing theory

B. indoctrination

C. ethnocentrism

D. social cognitive theory

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

Feedback: The Media

 

33.______ is the tendency to regard one's own ethnic group and culture as superior to others and to believe that its customs and way of life are the standards by which other cultures should be judged.

A. Ethnocentrism

B. Ethnicity

C. Ethnology

D. Ethnomethodology

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality

 

34.Which of the following best defines culture?

A. It refers to the tendency to regard one's own ethnic group and culture as superior to others and to believe that its customs and way of life are the standards by which other ethnic groups should be judged.

B. It refers to the part of the environment created by humans, including the set of meanings that a group adopts.

C. It refers to the view that exposure to the mass media makes people think that what they see there represents the mainstream of what really occurs.

D. It refers to the idea that the media provide role models whom people imitate.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality

 

35.Sharon, an American, states that a slim figure is the only standard of beauty that exists. Mia, her friend, states that being plump is considered attractive in certain cultures. Sharon disagrees with Mia and states that being plump is a sign of abnormality. In this case, Sharon's understanding of beauty is most likely influenced by

A. machismo.

B. familismo.

C. ethnocentrism.

D. cultivation.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality

 

36.A group of twelve engineering students from California travel to China for an extended study tour. While staying there, the students realize that the Chinese have a completely different understanding of sexual expression. Couples rarely hug or kiss in public places, advertisements of products related to sexuality are few, and sexual content in the media is heavily censored. The students experience a conflict between how sexuality is perceived in America and China. Which of the following concepts best explains this conflict?

A. xenocentrism

B. ethnocentrism

C. ambivalent sexism

D. huo yin yang

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality

 

37.______ refers to a regulation prohibiting sexual interaction between blood relatives.

A. Kinship taboo

B. Incest taboo

C. Oedipal taboo

D. Electra complex

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality

 

38.Incest taboos are

A. nearly universal.

B. predominantly a Western phenomenon.

C. regulations that prohibit extramarital affairs.

D. weaker now than a century ago.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality

 

39.Which of the following is true of sexual techniques?

A. The frequency of sexual intercourse between partners is remarkably stable across cultures.

B. Romantic sexual kissing is the most universal of sexual practices across cultures.

C. Cunnilingus is condemned in American culture.

D. In societies that incorporate pain into sexual intercourse, it is most common for both men and women to mutually inflict pain on each other.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

Topic: Sex

 

Feedback: Variations in Sexual Techniques

 

40.Which of the following is true of the frequency of intercourse for married couples?

A. Surveys of U.S. sexuality in the 1990s indicated that frequency of intercourse in American society was the highest when compared with all other societies.

B. The frequency of intercourse for married couples is the same across all cultures.

C. Most societies have restrictions that forbid intercourse at certain times or in certain situations.

D. Almost every society encourages sexual intercourse for a period of time after a woman has given birth.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Variations in Sexual Techniques

 

41.Self-stimulation of the genitals to produce sexual arousal is called

A. cunnilingus.

B. masturbation.

C. fellatio.

D. incest.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Masturbation

 

Feedback: Masturbation

 

42.Which of the following is true of attitudes toward masturbation?

A. All human societies discourage masturbation during childhood and adolescence.

B. Almost all human societies express some disapproval of adult masturbation.

C. All human societies condemn female masturbation.

D. Almost all human societies have similar attitudes toward masturbation.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Masturbation

 

43.Sex education is nonexistent, and there seems to be no knowledge of French kissing, mouth stimulation of erotic parts, or homosexuality, in

A. Mangaian culture.

B. the Lesu culture.

C. the culture of Inis Beag.

D. Greek culture.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Variations in Sexual Techniques

 

44.Which of the following is true of sexuality among the people of the island of Mangaia?

A. Masturbation is the only form of sexual activity undertaken by adolescents.

B. Premarital sex is essentially unknown.

C. Boys learn about cunnilingus from male experts who perform the superincision ritual.

D. Foreplay is limited to kissing and fondling of the buttocks.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Variations in Sexual Techniques

 

45.Researchers have found that on the island of Mangaia,

A. female orgasm is thought to be nonexistent or deviant.

B. older men instruct young girls in sexual matters.

C. older women and men instruct young boys in sexual matters.

D. after their mid-forties, men and women abstain from sex.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Variations in Sexual Techniques

 

46.Which of the following societies has the lowest frequency of sexual intercourse?

A. Mangaia

B. Inis Beag

C. Eastern Polynesia

D. Ponape

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Variations in Sexual Techniques

 

47.When sexual behavior is examined across cultures, which of the following is the most strictly prohibited type of sexual contact?

A. incest

B. extramarital sex

C. masturbation

D. premarital sex

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Premarital and Extramarital Sex

 

48.Which of the following types of sexual contact would be strictly forbidden across the highest number of different cultures?

A. a married woman having sexual intercourse with someone other than her husband

B. sexual relations between married individuals

C. sexual relations between a father and a daughter

D. a woman who performs oral sex

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality

 

49.Which of the following is the second most prohibited type of sexual contact across all cultures?

A. incest

B. extramarital sex

C. cunnilingus

D. premarital sex

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Premarital and Extramarital Sex

 

50.Across cultures, even when extramarital sex is permitted, it is subjected to regulations. Identify the most common pattern of restriction.

A. extramarital sex allowed for husbands but not wives

B. extramarital sex allowed for middle-aged couples

C. extramarital sex allowed as long as the married individuals are discreet about their infidelities

D. extramarital sex allowed for wives in the case that they have no children

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Premarital and Extramarital Sex

 

51.Which of the following is true regarding homosexuality?

A. Outside the Western world, it tends to be the predominant form of sexual behavior for adults.

B. It is found only in Western cultures.

C. Attitudes toward homosexuality vary little across cultures.

D. Same-gender sexual behavior is nearly universal across societies.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Sex with Same-Gender Partners

 

52.Which of the following is a general rule, across cultures, regarding same-gender sexual behavior?

A. Same-gender sexual behavior is now accepted by all the major world religions.

B. Same-gender sexual expression exists only in Western nations.

C. Across the world, there is little variation in attitudes toward same-gender sexual expression.

D. Same-gender sexual behavior is never the predominant form of sexual behavior for adults in any of the societies studied.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Sex with Same-Gender Partners

 

53.Which of the following is a general rule, across cultures, regarding the standard of attractiveness?

A. A plump woman is considered unattractive.

B. Having small ears and a small nose is considered attractive.

C. A poor complexion is unattractive.

D. An attractive woman is a thin woman.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Beauty

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Standards of Attractiveness

 

54.Among the Nawa women of Africa, it is considered attractive to have ______ labia majora.

A. hairy

B. elongated

C. tattooed

D. small

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Beauty

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Standards of Attractiveness

 

55.According to research based on social-class variations and sexuality, which of the following women is most likely to use the birth control pill for contraception?

A. Sandra, a college sophomore

B. Millie, a high school drop-out

C. Joan, a high school diploma holder

D. Kelly, a master's degree holder

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Abortion

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

56.The key to understanding the differences and similarities in sexuality among ethnic groups in the United States is the

A. birth rate prevalent in their country of origin.

B. biological differences among the groups.

C. cultural context of the different groups.

D. opportunity for sexual activities.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

57.Which of the following is one of the defining factors that makes the sexuality of Blacks somewhat different from that of Whites?

A. the cultural code of marianismo

B. the cultural code of machismo

C. the current trend toward globalization

D. the current economic and social conditions

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

58.According to the data published by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2000, which of the following groups has the lowest ratio of men to women in American society?

A. Asian Americans

B. Latinos

C. Whites

D. African Americans

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

59.Which of the following is most likely to be the reason for lower marriage rates among African Americans?

A. the unequal ratio of men to women

B. the repressive culture as a legacy of the Victorian era

C. the greater incidence of same-sex sexual behavior

D. the higher rate of abortions than any other ethnic group

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

60.Which of the following is most likely to be the reason for lower marriage rates among African Americans?

A. African American men face obstacles in seeking and maintaining the jobs necessary to support a family.

B. Most African American women prefer not to get married.

C. There is an unequal gender ratio among Blacks, with men being in the majority.

D. African Americans are more concerned with building their careers than starting families.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

61.Which of the following cultural values of Latinos emphasizes the importance of family—nuclear and extended—in matters such as support, loyalty, solidarity, and family honor?

A. ancestry

B. lineage

C. kinship

D. familismo

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

62.Among Latinos, the cultural code of ______ in its extreme form means tolerating men's sexual infidelities.

A. marianismo

B. modern values

C. machismo

D. adultery

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

63.The cultural code of machismo in the Latin American culture

A. mandates that the man be responsible for his family's well-being and honor.

B. includes an emphasis on male virginity until marriage.

C. advocates males' sexual exclusivity within marriage.

D. means tolerating women's sexual infidelities.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

64.In the traditional Latino culture, gender roles are epitomized by the concepts of machismo and marianismo, which in their extreme forms

A. discourage extramarital sex for both men and women.

B. discourage extramarital sex for men and tolerate it for women.

C. tolerate extramarital sex for men and discourage it for women.

D. tolerate extramarital sex for both men and women.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

65.Among Latinos, the cultural code that emphasizes virginity and the importance of motherhood is

A. marianismo.

B. adultery.

C. machismo.

D. familismo.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

66.As part of a traditional Mexican family, Juanita knows that she must refrain from premarital sex. It would shame her family if she lost her virginity before she was married. This example illustrates the concept of ______ in Latino culture.

A. machismo

B. huo yin yang

C. familismo

D. marianismo

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

67.Which among the following is a similarity between Latin American and Asian American cultures?

A. Open expression of emotions among men and women is discouraged in both societies.

B. Men and women of both these cultures are considered to be promiscuous.

C. Asian American women and Latin American women have more sexual freedom than their male counterparts.

D. Protection of family honor is given significant importance in both cultures.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

68.The concept of family honor is particularly important to both

A. Latin Americans and Asian Americans.

B. Asian Americans and African Americans.

C. African Americans and Whites.

D. Whites and Latin Americans.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

69.Because of core values that include collectivism, conformity to norms, and emotional control, Asian Americans as an ethnic group tend to be the most sexually ______ of the various ethnic groups in America.

A. progressive

B. conservative

C. liberal

D. permissive

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

70.Deena refrains from public displays of affection toward her husband, as this would pose a threat to her family name. Which of the following is the core Asian value relevant to sexuality depicted in this example?

A. ethnocentrism

B. marianismo

C. collectivism

D. machismo

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

71.David Chang, an Asian American, always tries to put the needs of others—especially those of his family—before his own. This illustrates the core Asian value of

A. collectivism.

B. hedonism.

C. romanticism.

D. liberalism.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

72.Which of the following represents a core Asian value?

A. Individuals should conform to the expectations of the family and society.

B. Individuals openly express their emotions.

C. Individuals consider their own needs before those of their family.

D. Individuals can freely express homosexual tendencies.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

73.Which of the following examples illustrates a core value in Asian culture?

A. a man who shows restraint in his open expression of love and passion toward his wife

B. a woman who engages in an extramarital affair with a work colleague

C. a man who engages in sexual intercourse with multiple partners

D. a woman who puts her own needs before those of her family

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

74.Which of the following groups has the lowest incidence of multiple sexual partners?

A. Latinos

B. Asian Americans

C. Whites

D. African Americans

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

75.Which of the following statements about American Indians is true?

A. American Indian men have been historically portrayed in the popular media as sexless, violent savages.

B. American Indian women have been less visible in the popular media than men.

C. American Indian women have experienced a greater visibility in the popular media than men.

D. American Indians have generally been well-represented in most major national sex surveys.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

76.______ are subtle insults directed at people of color, often done nonconsciously.

A. Racial microaggressions

B. Microaggressions against trans people

C. Gender microaggressions

D. Sexual orientation microaggressions

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

77.Which of the following is true of racial microaggressions in the United States?

A. They are very obvious forms of prejudiced attitudes and behaviors.

B. They have been replaced by overt racism.

C. They are frequently experienced by members of ethnic minorities.

D. They have become rare.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Social-Class and Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States

 

78.Cross-cultural studies of human sexual behavior show that

A. enormous variation in sexual behavior exists across cultures.

B. variation in behavior across cultures can be attributed to differences in biological makeup.

C. variation in sexual behavior is completely dependent on drives and instincts.

D. there is no variation in behavior across cultures.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: The Significance of Cross-Cultural Studies

 

79.Among the Chinese, ______ is the term used for sexual intercourse.

A. huo yin yang

B. yin fu

C. yan ju

D. yin yang

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Ethnicity and Sexuality in the United States

 

80.Of the three major religions of China, ______ is the only truly indigenous one; and it is one of the few religions to advocate the cultivation of sexual techniques for the benefit of an individual.

A. Dongbaism

B. Taoism

C. Buddhism

D. Confucianism

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Ethnicity and Sexuality in the United States

 

81.Which of the following is true regarding sexual attitudes in China?

A. Attitudes about sexuality have been influenced by puritanical Taoist beliefs.

B. Negative and repressive attitudes about sexuality became dominant under the neo-Confucianists.

C. Attitudes about sexuality were strongly influenced by Christian puritanism.

D. The Chinese have always condemned homosexuality.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Ethnicity and Sexuality in the United States

 

82.Since the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, attitudes and laws toward sexuality in China have predominantly demonstrated

A. tolerance for male homosexuality but not female homosexuality.

B. tolerance of sexual expression in general.

C. severe repression of all forms of sexuality.

D. encouragement of sexual freedom and fulfillment only among married individuals.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Ethnicity and Sexuality in the United States

 

83.Cross-cultural studies of human sexual behavior have shown that

A. different societies are no longer distinguished by their unique sexual practices.

B. human sexual behavior is primarily determined by biological makeup.

C. culture has a profound impact on sexual expression.

D. developed societies are regressing to a more conservative outlook on sexuality.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: The Significance of Cross-Cultural Studies

 

84.Research on nonhuman species suggests that same-gender sexual behavior is

A. the predominant form of sexual interaction among nonhuman species.

B. found only in primates.

C. found in many species.

D. nonexistent in all other species apart from humans.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Same-Gender Sexual Behavior

 

85.Which of the following statements concerning cross-species observations of sexuality is true?

A. Same-gender sexual attraction is a unique facet of sexual behavior in humans.

B. Sexual signaling is observed in animals but not humans.

C. Female masturbation is found among many species beside our own.

D. Masturbation is absent in all mammalian species except humans.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Masturbation; Same-Gender Sexual Behavior; Sexual Signaling

 

86.Observations of other species indicate that our basic mammalian heritage is

A. composed exclusively of same-gender sexual behavior.

B. markedly asexual in nature, as procreation does not require sexual intercourse.

C. composed of both heterosexual and homosexual elements.

D. created by the expression of heterosexual tendencies alone.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Same-Gender Sexual Behavior

 

87.There are several species of mammals among which the males often mount other males, and anal intercourse has been observed in some male primates. The most likely explanation of this behavior is that

A. basic mammalian heritage is composed exclusively of heterosexual tendencies.

B. there is a scarcity of females in all species.

C. basic mammalian heritage is composed exclusively of homosexual tendencies.

D. there is homosexual behavior among many species of mammals.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Same-Gender Sexual Behavior

 

88.A female "parades" in front of a group of males and then makes eye contact with one of them. Which of the following best describes this behavior by the female?

A. sexual signaling

B. the "brush-off"

C. phallic aggression

D. the "caution" look

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Remember

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Sexual Signaling

 

89.When interacting with males, the female patas monkey puffs out her cheeks and drools. This is an example of

A. marianismo.

B. the incest taboo.

C. phallic aggression.

D. sexual signaling.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Sexual Signaling

 

90.Which of the following is the general trend observed in the sexual behavior of higher species (primates), as compared with lower species (e.g. mice)?

A. Sexual behavior is completely controlled by hormones.

B. Sexual behavior is controlled more by the brain than hormones.

C. The environment has no influence in the sexual behavior of higher species.

D. Males generally engage in sexual activity during estrus.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Human Uniqueness

 

91.In virtually all mammalian species, females engage in sexual behavior

A. only when the male initiates it.

B. about once a week.

C. only when they are in "heat."

D. at regular intervals that are determined primarily by the availability of mature males.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Human Uniqueness

 

92.Studies have shown that if rhesus monkeys are reared in isolation, their adult sexual behavior is severely disturbed, to the point where they may be incapable of reproducing. However, if mice are reared in isolation, their adult sexual behavior will nonetheless be normal. Which of the following statements best explains the difference in outcomes?

A. Sexual activity is purely a function of biology in monkeys.

B. Monkeys are incapable of learning through observing their environment.

C. Environmental influences play a stronger role in sexuality in higher species than in lower ones.

D. For all higher species, sexual activity is limited to a natural mechanism of reflexes and hormones.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Human Uniqueness

 

93.The key difference in human female sexuality from that of other "lower" species is that

A. in nonhuman species, female sexual behavior is strongly controlled by hormones.

B. the females of nonhuman species attain sexual maturity late in their life cycles.

C. only females of the human species experience orgasm.

D. in nonhuman species, the females often have more than one sexual partner.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: Human Uniqueness

 

94.Which of the following is an example of sexual behavior used for nonsexual purposes?

A. a rapist using sex as an expression of power over a woman

B. an individual engaging in sexual intercourse when the female is potentially fertile

C. any individual engaging in sexual activity as an end in itself

D. an individual renting a porn movie on a Sunday afternoon for physical stimulation

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

Feedback: The Nonsexual Uses of Sexual Behavior

 

95.Which of the following statements is true regarding the sexual health movement?

A. It is purely a social movement.

B. Its only focus is the prevention of sexual diseases.

C. It involves a vision of positive sexual relationships.

D. It exclusively promotes physical sexual health.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Explain the sexual health perspective.

Topic: Sexual Health Perspective

 

Feedback: The Sexual Health Perspective

 

96.An example of a negative sexual right is the

A. right to reproductive self-determination.

B. freedom to experience sexual pleasure.

C. freedom from sexual violence.

D. freedom to express one's sexuality with same-gender partners.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Explain the sexual health perspective.

Topic: Sexual Health Perspective

 

Feedback: The Sexual Health Perspective

 

97.Freedom from all forms of discrimination based on sex, sexuality, or gender is an example of a(n) ______ sexual right.

A. positive

B. variable

C. negative

D. affirmative

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Explain the sexual health perspective.

Topic: Sexual Health Perspective

 

Feedback: The Sexual Health Perspective

 

98.Which of the following is an example of a positive sexual right?

A. freedom to experience sexual pleasure

B. freedom from physical abuse

C. freedom to coerce a partner into nonconsensual sex

D. freedom from sexual abuse

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Explain the sexual health perspective.

Topic: Sexual Health Perspective

 

Feedback: The Sexual Health Perspective

 

99.Identify an example of a positive sexual right.

A. the right of a man to have nonconsensual sex with a woman

B. the right of a person to discriminate against others based on their sexual orientation

C. the right of a woman to be free of sexual abuse

D. the right of a man to have consensual sex with his same-sex partner

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Explain the sexual health perspective.

Topic: Sexual Health Perspective

 

Feedback: The Sexual Health Perspective

 

100.What is meant by the terms sex and gender? Why are the differences between the two terms important?

 

In this textbook, the term sex refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior, while gender refers to the state of being male or female or some other gender such as trans. It is important to make a distinction between these two terms, because sometimes the word sex is used in a very ambiguous manner. In certain cases, it may refer to the state of being male or female, while in other cases it may refer to sexual behavior or reproduction. Though a lot of this ambiguity can be done away with by taking into account the context in which the word is used, it can still cloud our thinking. Thus, sex and gender are made out to be two different but interrelated concepts.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Differentiate sex and gender.

Topic: Gender

Topic: Sex

 

101.What are some of the similarities in the works of the early researchers who undertook the scientific study of sex?

 

The scientific study of sex began in the nineteenth century, when some of its early proponents were Oskar Hertwig, Sigmund Freud, Henry Havelock Ellis, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, and several others. Though all of these researchers contributed something unique to the understanding of sexuality, upon closer inspection certain similarities can be found among them. Most evident is the fact that most of these researchers' works were conducted during the Victorian era—i.e., in a cultural context where norms about sexuality were extraordinarily rigid and oppressive. Also, each of these researchers had quite varied research interests in sexual beliefs and behavior. For example, while Richard von Krafft-Ebing focused on "pathological" sexuality, Oskar Hertwig contributed to understanding the biological aspects of sexuality. Lastly, the early researchers often let their own beliefs and values influence their areas of study. For example, it has been suggested that Magnus Hirschfeld's special interest in the study of homosexuality resulted from the fact that he was himself both homosexual and a transvestite. Also, Richard von Krafft-Ebing's works are considered to be lacking in objectivity.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Recall the contributions of key sex researchers.

Topic: Sex Researchers

 

102.Describe three of the theories of media influence developed by communications theorists, and give an example of each.

 

Communications theorists developed several theories to describe different types of media influence. The first, called cultivation theory, refers to the notion that people begin to think that what they see on television and in other media really represents the mainstream of what happens in our culture. For example, college students who watch the soaps are more likely than nonviewing students to overestimate the incidence of divorce. Framing theory refers to the tendency of media to select certain topics to ignore or report, and within the stories they report, what to emphasize. A news channel that focuses more on celebrity gossip instead of stories that are actually newsworthy is an example of agenda setting. Social cognitive theory contends that characters on television, in the movies, or in romance novels may serve as models whom we imitate, perhaps without even realizing it. Research has found, for example, that teens who watch more sexy television engage in first intercourse earlier than do other teens. In reinforcing spiral theory, our social identities and ideologies predict our media use, which in turn affects our identity and beliefs. For example, a Latino student with strong beliefs about cultural heritage may seek out only Latino-centric programming, which in turn reinforces their beliefs about their culture. The differential susceptibility model suggests that not everyone reacts the same to the same media exposure: A person with higher levels of inherent aggressiveness might be more susceptible to violent programming than someone without those tendencies, for example.

 

Student examples may vary.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

103.In the context of human sexuality, what are the advantages and disadvantages of Internet use?

 

The Internet is a powerful mass media influence. Computer and Internet use is spreading more rapidly than any previous technology, and today 89 percent of U.S. adults use the Internet. This is bound to have both positive and negative effects on sexual health. A number of sites, such as that for the American Social Health Association, provide excellent information about sexuality and promote sexual health. At the same time, a repeated, well-sampled study of youth between the ages of 10 and 17 indicated that, whereas in 2000, 19 percent had been sexually solicited on the Internet, by 2010 the number had actually fallen to 9 percent. Most youth who received a solicitation responded by removing themselves from the situation (blocking the solicitor, leaving the site) or by telling the solicitor to stop. Experts believe that there is greater online safety for youth today than in the past, for a number of reasons. One is that they receive more talks about online safety from teachers and police.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe the relationship between sexuality and the media.

Topic: Media

 

104.Compare the various sexual perspectives and rituals in the societies of Inis Beag and Mangaia.

 

A small island off the coast of Ireland called Inis Beag and the South Pacific island of Mangaia represent two extremes in terms of sexual behavior. Inis Beag is considered to be one of the most naive and sexually repressive societies in the world, while in Mangaia sex—for pleasure and for procreation—is a principal interest. Several comparisons can be drawn between these two societies.

On the island of Inis Beag, people seem to have no knowledge of a number of sexual activities, and sex education is virtually nonexistent, as parents shy away from discussing sex with their children. In contrast, Mangaian boys and girls receive sexual instruction from older men and women at a very young age, and the superincision ritual among boys is considered to be an initiation into manhood. Another area in which Inis Beag and Mangaia differ significantly is premarital sex. While premarital sex is practically unheard of in Inis Beag, parents in Mangaia encourage their daughters to have sexual experiences with several men. In Mangaia, the average "nice" girl may have three or four successive boyfriends, while a boy may have up to 10 or more girlfriends. Also, in Inis Beag, the concept of female orgasm either is believed not to exist or is considered deviant. This of course is in sharp contrast to Mangaia, where all women learn how to have orgasms. These vast differences in the sexual behavior of the inhabitants of these islands highlight the varying cross-cultural perspectives and attitudes on sexuality.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

105.How do the concepts of machismo and marianismo affect the sexual expression of Latin Americans?

 

In traditional Latino culture, gender roles are epitomized in the concepts of machismo and marianismo. Literally, machismo means "maleness" or "virility." More generally, it refers to the "mystique of manliness." The cultural code of machismo among Latin Americansmandates that the man must be responsible for the well-being and honor of his family. However, in its extreme form, it also means tolerating a man's sexual infidelities. Marianismo is the female counterpart of machismo and is derived from Roman Catholic worship of Mary, the virgin mother of Jesus. Thus, motherhood is highly valued, and virginity until marriage is closely guarded.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

106.Briefly explain the concept of racial microaggressions with an example.

 

Old-fashioned, obvious, overt racism has become rare in the United States. It has been replaced by more subtle forms of prejudiced attitudes and behaviors. Racial microaggressions are subtle insults directed at people of color, often done nonconsciously. Members of ethnic minorities in the U.S. experience them frequently, and they can be a source of stress. For example, consider the following scenario in which a White professor provides a lecture on Greco-Roman contributions to the history of psychology. An African American student seems frustrated and says that the history of psychology is ethnocentric and Eurocentric, and that it leaves out contributions from African, Asian, and Latin American cultures and psychologies. The professor responds by asking the student to calm down and implies that American psychology is the norm and it influences other societies, with no consideration of the possibility that other societies might have developed psychological concepts and principles on their own. Telling a person to calm down is often an expression of dominance that invalidates the legitimacy of the person's feelings. The subtlety and ambiguity of microaggressions makes them even more difficult to deal with.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology's content domains

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

107.Describe some aspects of human sexuality that are unique to our species.

 

The main difference between the sexual behavior of humans and that of lower species is that sexual behavior in humans tends to be controlled more by the brain, while in lower species, sexual behavior is more hormonally controlled and instinctive. Environmental influences are much more important in shaping primate—especially human—sexual behavior than they are in shaping the sexual behavior of other species. Aspects of human sexuality such as masturbation, same-gender sexual behavior, sexual signaling, and orgasm have been found to exist among nonhuman species as well. In summary, then, there is little in human sexuality that is completely unique to humans, except for elaborate, complex cultural influences. In other respects, we are on a continuum with other species.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Compare the sexuality of humans and other species.

Topic: Cross-Species Perspective

 

108.Give three examples that highlight the use of sexual behavior for nonsexual purposes.

 

The following are some examples that highlight the use of sexual behavior for nonsexual purposes:

 

An employee who uses sexual favors to climb up the corporate ladder

A student who uses sex as a way to gain popularity in school

An aspiring actor who uses the "casting couch" to get a break in Hollywood

Student answers will vary.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Explain the sexual health perspective.

Topic: Sexual Health Perspective

 

109.Should same-sex marriages be made a basic sexual right? Why or why not?

 

Student answers will vary. Answers could include information on the nature versus nurture debate, the impact on society, equal civil rights, discrimination, and the role of sexual health. It may be noted that arguments in favor of same-sex marriages as a basic right have gained momentum worldwide, and that Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and now the United States recognize them.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Explain the sexual health perspective.

Topic: Sexual Health Perspective

 

110.Identify a characteristic of microaggressions.

A. They are rare in the United States, as they have largely been replaced by overt racism.

B. They are ambiguous and can be a source of stress.

C. They are also known as overt racism, as they are done consciously.

D. They are directed at members of a majority group.

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Understand

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Ethnicity and Sexuality in the United States

 

111.Deena, an American Indian, attends a lecture on international relations. The professor talks about the positive impact of the recent meetings between the ambassadors of the United States and developing nations. Deena voices her opinion that such meetings are inconsequential without the discussion of the history between the United States and the developing nations. The professor asks Deena to calm down and says that the United States has done more good than harm to the developing nations. Which of the following is best exemplified in this scenario?

A. racial microaggression

B. reverse discrimination

C. overt racism

D. disparate treatment

 

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3: Describe applications of psychology

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom's: Apply

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective: Describe unique traits of human sexuality and how culture influences them.

Topic: Culture

 

Feedback: Ethnicity and Sexuality in the United States