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Test Bank Understanding Motivation and Emotion 6th Edition

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Test Bank Understanding Motivation and Emotion 6th Edition

Test Bank Understanding Motivation and Emotion 6th Edition 

Chapter 1

Introduction

 

Chapter Outline

 

            Motivational Science

 

Two Perennial Questions

            What Causes Behavior?

                        Why Does Behavior Vary in Its Intensity?

 

Subject Matter

Internal Motives

External Events

 

Expressions of Motivation

Behavior

Engagement

Physiology

Brain Activations

Self-Report

 

A Framework to Understand the Study of Motivation

 

Ten Unifying Themes in the Study of Motivation and Emotion

Motivation and Emotion Benefit Adaptation and Functioning

Motivation and Emotion Direct Attention and Prepare Action

Motivation and Emotion Are Intervening Variables

Motives Vary over Time and Influence the Ongoing Stream of Behavior

Types of Motivation Exist

Motivational Basis of Our Behavior Is not Always Conscious

Motivation Study Reveals What People Want

To Flourish, Motivation Needs Supportive Conditions

When Trying to Motivate Others, What Is Easy to Do Is Rarely What Is Effective

There Is Nothing So Practical As a Good Theory

 

Summary


 

Problem of the Day

 

What cues do you use to know the motivation of another person?

 

 

Activities

Define motivation.

Ask each student to construct a personal, one-sentence definition. Then ask the students

to exchange and share their written definitions with the person sitting next to them.

 

Define emotion.

Ask each student to construct a personal, one-sentence definition (if possible). Then, ask

the students to exchange and share their written definitions with the person sitting next to them.

 

 

Discussion Questions

 

Theory

 

1.       Imagine that a guest speaker, named Dr. Motivation, pays a visit to your class.

            He wonders if you might have one burning question to ask. What might that question be?

 

2.       From a motivational point of view, what causes behavior?

 

3.       From a motivational point of view, why does behavior vary in its intensity?

 

4.       Motivation arises from both internal motives (i.e., needs, cognitions, emotions)

and external events (i.e., incentives, consequences, social contexts). Is one of these

sources of motivation more potent or more effective in motivating people than is

the other? Are people primarily motivated by internal motives or by external events,

or are people motivated about equally by internal motives and external events?

 

Application

 

1.       Think about a serious motivational problem you had. What was it?

What do you think caused the problem? How might you solve it?

 

  1. Think about a serious motivational problem someone else had (e.g., a friend or

teammate). What was it? What do you think caused the problem?

How might you solve it?


 

  1. Why did you come to class today? Provide a motivational answer to explain:

Initiation:                    What motivated you to come to class in the first place?

Persistence:                 Why do you continue to stay minute after minute?

Why come back tomorrow?

Goal directedness:      Why go to class today rather than do something else?


Multiple-Choice Test Questions

 

__ 1.   Motivation study concerns itself with those processes that give behavior its:

(a)         benefits and costs.

(b)        energy and direction.

(c)         feedforward and feedback.

(d)        success and failure.

(e)         uniqueness and individuality.

 

__ 2.   A theory is a(n):

(a)         construction of facts with successive layers of complexity.

(b)        intellectual forecast to estimate the value of a psychological principle.

(c)         project requiring some action or some set of actions.

(d)        intellectual framework to identify and explain relationships among phenomena.

 

__ 3.   Pairing “science” and “motivation” in the phrase “motivational science” means that answers to motivational questions require:

(a)    that one’s personal beliefs about motivation are confirmed by cultural norms.

(b)   opportunities to reflect on one’s personal experiences so as to gain personal

      insights about the nature of motivation.

(c)    data-based, empirical evidence to validate objectively one’s claims about how

      motivation works.

(d)   that one recognizes that most motivational states cannot be studied scientifically.

 

__ 4.   Which of the following statements is most true?

(a)                A motive is an internal process that energizes and directs behavior.

(b)               Cognitions are short-lived physiological-functional-expressive phenomena.

(c)                External motives (incentives) predict behavior better than do internal motives (needs).

(d)               Internal motives (needs) predict behavior better than do external motives (incentives).

 

__ 5.   Which of the following statements best defines motivation? Motivation is:

(a)         an intense desire to succeed.

(b)        a force that energizes and directs behavior.

(c)         a system of rewards and punishments to influence behavior.

(d)        positive beliefs about oneself, such as high self-esteem.

 

__ 6.   Among the following questions, which is considered to be a core, perennial question within motivation study?

(a)         Is human behavior mostly conscious or mostly unconscious?

(b)        Under what conditions do people learn best?

(c)         What causes behavior?

(d)        Why are people happy?

 

__ 7. People often say that the best way to motivate others is to increase their self-esteem, as in “Find a way to make people feel good about themselves, and then all sorts of good things start to happen.” In response to this approach to motivation, the textbook concluded that:

(a)                no research exists on self-esteem because it is best studied through personal experience.

(b)   a great deal of evidence supports this approach to motivation.

(c)    practically no evidence supports this approach to motivation.

(d)   while not perfect, increasing self-esteem is still the most effective approach to

      motivating other people.

 

__ 8.   Which of the following questions is not a key part of understanding motivation study’s basic question, “What causes behavior?”

(a)    Once begun, why is a behavior sustained over time?

(b)   What is the difference between one type of behavior and another?

(c)    Why does behavior start?

(d)   Why does behavior stop?

 

__ 9.   A motivation researcher interested in understanding why a person eats a meal needs to answer all of the following questions, except:

(a)    How is food digested?

(b)   Why did the eating begin?

(c)    Why did the eating end?

(d)   Why did the person eat quickly at first but eat much slower after several bites?

(e)    Why is the person eating a meal rather than doing something else?

 

__10.   _________ are conditions within the individual that are essential and necessary for the maintenance of life and for the nurturance of growth and well-being.

(a)         Cognitions

(b)        Emotions

(c)         Motives

(d)        Needs

(e)         Presses

 

__11.   __________ are short-lived subjective-physiological-functional-expressive phenomena that orchestrate how a person reacts to significant life events.

(a)         Cognitions

(b)        Emotions

(c)         Motivations

(d)        Motives

(e)         Needs


 

__12.   In contrast to other psychological constructs, such as intelligence and personality, the construct of "motivation" has one great advantage, which is that:

(a)         measures of motivation are more reliable than are measures of these other

      constructs.

(b)        motivation is more psychological in nature than these other constructs.

(c)         motivation is more stable and endures over time more than these other constructs.

(d)        the antecedent conditions to motivational states are frequently known.

 

__13.   The time a person delays a response following an initial exposure to a stimulus event (e.g., how much time it takes before one starts studying upon entering the library) is called:

(a)         choice.

(b)        effort.

(c)         latency.

(d)        persistence.

(e)         probability of response.

 

__14.   _____ is the time interval between the initiation of a response and its cessation.

(a)         Choice

(b)        Effort

(c)         Latency

(d)        Persistence

(e)         Probability of response

 

__15.   Assessing a person’s heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate to infer the presence and intensity of a person’s motivational state constitutes which type of measure of motivation?

(a)         behavioral

(b)        enactive

(c)         ethological

(d)        physiological

(e)         projective

 

__16.   In general, motivation researchers rely heavily on _____ measures, but only lightly on _____ measures.

(a)         behavioral and physiological; self-report

(b)        behavioral; self-report and physiological

(c)         self-report and behavioral; physiological

(d)        self-report; behavioral and physiological

 

__17.   Which of the following is not a valid criticism of self-report measures of motivation?

(a)         People often give socially desirable, rather than accurate, verbal responses.

(b)        Self-report measures are inherently unreliable.

(c)         Self-report measures do not work well with either infants or animals.

(d)        Self-report measures frequently rely on memory for their accuracy.

 

__18.   If a motivation researcher measured chemicals within a person’s blood or saliva (e.g., (epinephrine, cortisol), then that researcher would be assessing which aspect of brain and physiological activity as an expression of the person’s motivation?

(a)    brain activity

(b)       cardiovascular activity

(c)       electrodermal activity

(d)      hormonal activity

 

__19.   Engagement is a multidimensional expression of motivation. Which of the following aspect of engagement is not central to understanding the person’s underlying motive status?

(a)    behavioral engagement

(b)   cognitive engagement

(c)    emotional engagement

(d)   social engagement

 

__20.   _______ engagement expresses the extent to which the person actively monitors how well things are going and uses sophisticated learning and problem-solving strategies.

(a)    Behavioral

(b)   Cognitive

(c)    Emotional

(d)   Social

 

__21.   If a student pays very close attention to the learning materials, puts a lot of effort into the learning, and persists in the learning for an extended period of time, she would be rated as scoring high on ___________ engagement.

(a)    behavioral

(b)   cognitive

(c)    emotional

(d)   social

 

__22.   If a student asked questions, offered suggestions, and expressed his preferences for how to learn the lesson, he would be rated as scoring high on __________ engagement.

(a)    behavioral

(b)   cognitive

(c)    emotional

(d)   social


 

__23.   The following example reveals the importance of which theme in the study of motivation? The worker who has an interesting job and works with supportive co-workers will perform better and be happier on the job than will the worker who has a boring job and works with conflictual co-workers.

(a)         Changes in environmental conditions cause changes in motivational states.

(b)         Motivation includes both approach and avoidance tendencies.

(c)         To adapt optimally, people need positive, approach-based motives rather than

      aversive, avoidance-based motives.

(d)        To flourish, motivation needs supportive conditions.

 

__24.   Which of the following statements best supports the conclusion that types of motivations exist?

(a)                Motivation is a dynamic process.

(b)               Motivation is a unitary construct.

(c)                Some types of motivation yield a higher quality of experience and better outcomes than do other types.

(d)        Some types of motivation produce more energy and direction than do others.

 

__25.   To adapt optimally, people need a motivational repertoire that features:

(a)    just as many avoidance-based motives as approach-based motives.

(b)   many more approach-based motives than avoidance-based motives.

(c)    many more avoidance-based motives than approach-based motives.

(d)   many more psychologically based motives than biologically based motives.

 

__26.   A motivational psychologist would agree with each of the following statements, except:

(a)    Changes in environmental conditions cause changes in motivational states.

(b)   Motivation includes both approach and avoidance tendencies.

(c)                To adapt optimally, people need positive, approach-based motives rather than aversive, avoidance-based motives.

(d)   To flourish, motivation needs supportive conditions.

 

__27.   Theories help motivation researchers:

(a)    avoid having to collect data to test their hypotheses.

(b)   avoid statistics to analyze the data they collect in their experiments.

(c)    understand the public’s priority as to what motivation researchers should study.

(d)   understand the complex phenomena they study.


 

__28.   Can theories of motivation be used to recommend practical applications to improve people’s lives?

(a)    No, the function of a theory is only to design a good research study.

(b)               No, the real world is just too messy for practical applications of theories of motivation

(c)    Yes, once validated, theories can be used to recommend practical applications.

(d)               No, typically theories are just pie-in-sky ideas with little or no useful applied value.

 


 

Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

 

 

Multiple-Choice Test Questions

 

1.       b                      11.       b                      21.       a

2.       d                      12.       d                      22.       e

3.       c                      13.       c                     23.       e

4.       a                      14.       d                     24.       c

5.       b                      15.       d                      25.       a

6.       c                      16.       a                      26.       c

7.       c                      17.       b                      27.       d

8.       b                      18.       d                      28.       c

9.       a                      19.       d                                 

10.       d                      20.       b         

 


 

Short-Essay Test Questions

 

  1. Explain the meaning and importance of the phrase motivational science.

That is, why is it important to say motivation is a science?

  1. Explain the function or purpose of a theory in terms of helping (1) motivation researchers understand complex phenomena, (2) generate testable research hypotheses, and (3) recommend practical applications (e.g., schools, work) to improve people’s lives.

 

3.       State the two perennial questions in the motivation study.

 

4.      How do motivation researchers answer this question: What causes behavior?

 

5.       How do motivation researchers answer this question:

            Why does behavior vary in its intensity?

 

6.       What is the problem with the idea that the best way to motivate people is to increase their

            self-esteem? That is, why don’t motivation researchers recommend that practitioners (e.g.,             teachers, parents) boost people’s self-esteem with the intention of increasing their

            motivation?

 

7.       What is the subject matter of the motivation study? That is, if motivation is defined as the study of those processes that give behavior its energy and direction, then identify the various processes that give behavior its energy and direction.

 

  1. 8.      Why do motivation researchers care so much about monitoring a person’s engagement

            during an activity? When they monitor a person’s engagement, what do they monitor to

determine the person’s extent of engagement?

 

9.      How can you tell that someone is motivated? That is, to assess the quantity and quality of a person’s motivation, what would you measure?

 

10.       If a person was very fearful, what would a motivational psychologist measure to infer the presence and intensity level of that fear?

11.       Provide a definition and example of these two aspects of motivated behavior: latency and persistence.

 

12.       Explain why motivational psychologists do not solely depend on self-report questionnaire data to assess people's motivational states.

 

13.       Briefly describe each of the following six physiological systems that expresses a person’s underlying motivational or emotional process—cardiovascular activity, plasma activity, hormonal activity, ocular activity, electrodermal activity, and skeletal muscle activity.

 

14.       Explain the meaning of the following theme in motivation study:

                  Motivation benefits adaptation.

 

15.       Explain the meaning of the following theme in motivation study:

            Motivation varies not only in its intensity but also in its type.

 

16.       Explain the meaning of the following theme in motivation study:

Motives vary over time and influence the ongoing stream of behavior.